347 research outputs found

    Work Engagement: A meta-Analysis Using the Job Demands-Resources Model

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    Although the construct of work engagement has been extensively explored, a systematic meta-analysis based on a consistent categorization of engagement antecedents, outcomes, and well-being correlates is still lacking. The results of prior research reporting 533 correlations from 113 independent samples (k = 94, n = 119,420) were coded using a meta-analytic approach. The effect size for development resources (r =.45) and personal resources (r =.48) was higher than for social resources (r =.36) and for job resources (r =.37). Among the outcomes and well-being correlates explored, the effect size was highest for job satisfaction (r =.60) and commitment (r =.63). Furthermore, moderation analysis showed that (a) concerning the occupational role, work engagement finds a low association with turnover intention among civil servants, volunteer workers, and educators; (b) collectivist cultural environments reported a greater association of feedback with engagement than individualistic environments; (c) the relationship between personal resources and engagement was stronger among workers with university degrees than workers with high school diplomas. Furthermore, the absorption dimension showed a lower effect with all variables under investigation than vigor and dedication

    Resilience mechanisms at work: The psychological immunity-psychological elasticity (PI-PE) model of psychological resilience

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    Recently, scientists have shifted their focus from studying psychological resilience as a single, isolated construct (e.g. attribute or outcome) to studying it as a dynamic process encompassing a number of temporally related elements. Models depicting this process explain why some people adapt to stressor exposure, whereas others do not. To date, these process models did not sufficiently explain how people adapt differently to a stressor. To address this issue, we developed a new model of psychological resilience, called the Psychological Immunity-Psychological Elasticity (PI-PE) model. The aim of this article is to clarify this model and to discuss its added value. First, we explain how we derived the PI-PE model from the literature regarding both the crucial elements in any resilience process model and the (mal)adaptive outcomes following stressful events. Secondly, we describe the different elements that make up the model. Characteristic of the PI-PE model is that it distinguishes between two pathways of psychological resilience – psychological immunity and psychological elasticity – with four adaptive outcomes, namely sustainability, recovery, transformation and thriving. To explain how people arrive at these different outcomes, we argue that two consecutive mechanisms are critical in these pathways: tolerance and narrative construction. Taken as a whole, the PI-PE model presents a comprehensive framework to inspire both research and practice. It explains how the process of psychological resilience works differently for different people and how to support individuals in their process towards successfully and differently adapting to stressors

    Resilience mechanisms at work: The psychological immunity-psychological elasticity (PI-PE) model of psychological resilience

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    Recently, scientists have shifted their focus from studying psychological resilience as a single, isolated construct (e.g. attribute or outcome) to studying it as a dynamic process encompassing a number of temporally related elements. Models depicting this process explain why some people adapt to stressor exposure, whereas others do not. To date, these process models did not sufficiently explain how people adapt differently to a stressor. To address this issue, we developed a new model of psychological resilience, called the Psychological Immunity-Psychological Elasticity (PI-PE) model. The aim of this article is to clarify this model and to discuss its added value. First, we explain how we derived the PI-PE model from the literature regarding both the crucial elements in any resilience process model and the (mal)adaptive outcomes following stressful events. Secondly, we describe the different elements that make up the model. Characteristic of the PI-PE model is that it distinguishes between two pathways of psychological resilience – psychological immunity and psychological elasticity – with four adaptive outcomes, namely sustainability, recovery, transformation and thriving. To explain how people arrive at these different outcomes, we argue that two consecutive mechanisms are critical in these pathways: tolerance and narrative construction. Taken as a whole, the PI-PE model presents a comprehensive framework to inspire both research and practice. It explains how the process of psychological resilience works differently for different people and how to support individuals in their process towards successfully and differently adapting to stressors

    Navigating motivation at work: About leadership, purpose, values and basic psychological needs

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    Motivation lies at the core of human behavior. It explains why we do what we do. In this article, we seek an explanation for the influence of leadership, purpose, and values on employee engagement through motivation. Engaged employees derive energy from their work, are dedicated, show higher psychological well-being, and perform better. We suspected that motivation, as defined in self-determination theory, is an underlying mechanism that could explain the relationship between leadership and positive outcomes. To this end, we con-ducted five empirical studies in which the fulfillment of the basic psychological needs for autonomy, competence, and connectedness played a central role. We found that engaging leadership, a higher corporate purpose, and intrinsic values stimulated motivation and engagement. The fulfilment of psychological needs (notably autonomy) played an important role in these relationships. A sixth study tested leadership and inspiration in an intervention study. The intervention led to higher motivation among participants, lower absenteeism among employees, and better business performance. Navigating motivation at work supports employees to flourish, develop, and find significance

    The psychometric properties and measurement invariance of the Burnout Assessment Tool (BAT-23) in South Africa

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    Background: Burnout is an increasing public health concern that afflicts employees globally. The measurement of burnout is not without criticism, specifically in the context of its operational definition as a syndrome, also recently designated as such by the World Health Organisation. The Burnout Assessment Tool (BAT-23) is a new measure for burnout that addresses many of the criticisms surrounding burnout scales. The aim of this study is to determine the validity, reliability, and measurement invariance of the BAT-23 in South Africa. Method: A quantitative, cross-sectional survey, approach was taken (n = 1048). Latent variable modelling was implemented to investigate the construct-relevant multidimensionality that is present in the BAT. For measurement invariance, the configural, metric, scalar, and strict models were tested. Results: The analyses showed that the hierarchical operationalisation of BAT-assessed burnout was the most appropriate model for the data. Specifically, a bifactor ESEM solution. Composite reliability estimates were all well above the cut-off criteria for both the global burnout factor and the specific factors. The measurement invariance tests showed that gender achieved not only strong invariance, but also strict invariance. However, ethnicity initially only showed strong invariance, but a test of partial strict invariance did show that the mean scores could be fairly compared between the groups when releasing certain constraints. Conclusions: The BAT-23 is a valid and reliable measure to investigate burnout within the Southern African context

    Construct and Criterion Validity of the Dutch Workaholism Scale (DUWAS) Within the South African Financial Services Context

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    This research investigated the construct and criterion validity of the English version of the Dutch Work Addiction Scale (DUWAS) within the South African financial services context (n = 345). A quantitative research approach with a cross-sectional design was utilized to determine the psychometric properties of the Dutch Work Addiction Scale (DUWAS-10). Confirmatory factor analysis was used with a latent variable modeling approach for the construct validity and a structural path model for criterion validity. One of the working compulsively items did not perform well and was omitted to establish a 9-item scale. Additionally, due to problematic discriminant validity between the working compulsively and working excessively factors, the results did not corroborate the expected two-factor structure. However, a revised second-order structure of the DUWAS showed an acceptable fit to the data indicating that an overall workaholism score is appropriate in this context. Furthermore, the results showed that workaholism had positive relationships with work overload, work hours, and burnout but negatively related to work engagement and organizational commitment. All in all, evidence suggested that an adapted 9-item version of the DUWAS performed well

    Validation of the Japanese version of the Dutch Boredom Scale

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    OBJECTIVES: The current study aimed to validate the Japanese version of the Dutch Boredom Scale (DUBS-J), a new boredom scale that comprehensively assesses employees' emotional, cognitive, and behavioral responses to low-stimulus work situations. METHODS: The translated and back-translated DUBS was administered via an internet survey to 1358 Japanese employees from various occupations. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted to evaluate factorial validity. In order to evaluate discriminant validity with other work-related, well-being constructs, CFA was conducted, and the square root of average variance extracted (AVE) for the DUBS-J and the square of the inter-construct correlations were compared. Construct validity was evaluated based on the correlation coefficients between boredom at work on the one hand and potential antecedents and consequences on the other hand. RESULTS: Confirmatory factor analysis supported the expected one-factor model. CFA and AVE supported the discriminant validity of DUBS-J with work engagement, workaholism, and job satisfaction. Construct validity was generally supported by expected correlations of boredom at work with possible antecedents and consequences. Internal consistency was confirmed with Cronbach's alpha coefficient = .88, and the results of principal component analysis (PCA). Test-retest reliability was confirmed with intraclass correlation coefficients = .62. CONCLUSION: The current study confirmed that DUBS-J is an adequate measure of boredom at work that can be used in the Japanese context

    Burnout Assessment Tool (BAT): Validity Evidence from Brazil and Portugal

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    The Burnout Assessment Tool (BAT) has been gaining increased attention as a sound and innovative instrument in its conceptualization of burnout. BAT has been adapted for several countries, revealing promising validity evidence. This paper aims to present the psychometric properties of the Brazilian and Portuguese versions of the BAT in both the 23-item and 12-item versions. BAT’s validity evidence based on the internal structure (dimensionality, reliability, and measurement invariance) and validity evidence based on the relations to other variables are the focus of research. A cross-sectional study was conducted with two non-probabilistic convenience samples from two countries (N = 3103) one from Brazil (nBrazil = 2217) and one from Portugal (nPortugal = 886). BAT’s original structure was confirmed, and it achieved measurement invariance across countries. Using both classic test theory and item response theory as frameworks, the BAT presented good validity evidence based on the internal structure. Furthermore, the BAT showed good convergent evidence (i.e., work engagement, co-worker support, role clarity, work overload, and negative change). In conclusion, the psychometric properties of the BAT make this freely available instrument a promising way to measure and compare burnout levels of Portuguese and Brazilian workers

    The strengthening starts at home: Parent–child relationships, psychological capital, and academic performance – a longitudinal mediation analysis

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    This longitudinal study examines how academic psychological capital mediates between parent–child relationships and academic performance in a group of high school students. The sample consisted of 402 students (217 girls and 187 boys) aged between 12 and 17 years. Using a three–wave design, as hypothesized, a significant indirect effect was found between (good) parent–child relationships (assessed at time 1) and academic performance (assessed at time 3) via academic PsyCap (assessed at time 2). Students who perceived high–quality relationships with their parents reported high levels of academic psychological capital and obtained better objective academic performance over time. Theoretical and practical implications of the results are discussed, as well as strengths and weaknesses and future research directions

    Zicht op motivatie: Over leiderschap, ondernemingsdoelen, waarden en psychologische basisbehoeften

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    Motivation lies at the core of human behavior. It explains why we do what we do. In this article, we seek an explanation for the influence of leadership, purpose, and values on employee engagement through motivation. Engaged employees derive energy from their work, are dedicated, show higher psychological well-being, and perform better. We suspected that motivation, as defined in self-determination theory, is an underlying mechanism that could explain the relationship between leadership and positive outcomes. To this end, we con-ducted five empirical studies in which the fulfillment of the basic psychological needs for autonomy, competence, and connectedness played a central role. We found that engaging leadership, a higher corporate purpose, and intrinsic values stimulated motivation and engagement. The fulfilment of psychological needs (notably autonomy) played an important role in these relationships. A sixth study tested leadership and inspiration in an intervention study. The intervention led to higher motivation among participants, lower absenteeism among employees, and better business performance. Navigating motivation at work supports employees to flourish, develop, and find significance
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