4,686 research outputs found

    Electron and photon energy calibration with the ATLAS detector using LHC Run 2 data

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    This paper presents the electron and photon energy calibration obtained with the ATLAS detector using 140 fb-1 of LHC proton-proton collision data recorded at √(s) = 13 TeV between 2015 and 2018. Methods for the measurement of electron and photon energies are outlined, along with the current knowledge of the passive material in front of the ATLAS electromagnetic calorimeter. The energy calibration steps are discussed in detail, with emphasis on the improvements introduced in this paper. The absolute energy scale is set using a large sample of Z-boson decays into electron-positron pairs, and its residual dependence on the electron energy is used for the first time to further constrain systematic uncertainties. The achieved calibration uncertainties are typically 0.05% for electrons from resonant Z-boson decays, 0.4% at ET ∼ 10 GeV, and 0.3% at ET ∼ 1 TeV; for photons at ET ∼ 60 GeV, they are 0.2% on average. This is more than twice as precise as the previous calibration. The new energy calibration is validated using J/ψ → ee and radiative Z-boson decays

    The dynamic centres of infrared-dark clouds and the formation of cores

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    High-mass stars have an enormous influence on the evolution of the interstellar medium in galaxies, so it is important that we understand how they form. We examine the central clumps within a sample of seven infrared-dark clouds (IRDCs) with a range of masses and morphologies. We use 1-pc-scale observations from the Northern Extended Millimeter Array (NOEMA) and the IRAM 30m telescope to trace dense cores with 2.8-mm continuum, and gas kinematics in C18O, HCO+, HNC, and N2H+ (J = 1–0). We supplement our continuum sample with six IRDCs observed at 2.9 mm with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA), and examine the relationships between core- and clump-scale properties. We have developed a fully automated multiple-velocity component hyperfine line-fitting code called MWYDYN which we employ to trace the dense gas kinematics in N2H+ (1–0), revealing highly complex and dynamic clump interiors. We find that parsec-scale clump mass is the most important factor driving the evolution; more massive clumps are able to concentrate more mass into their most massive cores – with a log-normally distributed efficiency of around 9 per cent – in addition to containing the most dynamic gas. Distributions of linewidths within the most massive cores are similar to the ambient gas, suggesting that they are not dynamically decoupled, but are similarly chaotic. A number of studies have previously suggested that clumps are globally collapsing; in such a scenario, the observed kinematics of clump centres would be the direct result of gravity-driven mass inflows that become ever more complex as the clumps evolve, which in turn leads to the chaotic mass growth of their core populations

    Measurement of the tt¯ cross section and its ratio to the Z production cross section using pp collisions at √s = 13.6 TeV with the ATLAS detector