767 research outputs found

    Genetic basis of microbiome recruitment in pea roots challenged by root rot disease

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    Legumes play a crucial role in the shift towards more sustainable protein production, but root rot complexes can cause massive yield losses in many legume crops such as pea. The pea root rot complex (PRRC) is caused by various soil borne pathogens that likely act synergistically and influence the composition of the rhizosphere microbiome (Wille et al., 2021). As there is genotypic variation in the abundance of key PRRC taxa and disease susceptibility, we aimed to investigate the genotype effect on the root microbiome composition affecting plant health. This crucial interaction between the plant genotype and its associated microbiome, also known as the holobiont, has the potential to lead to increased resistance to PRRC

    Gap-filling eddy covariance methane fluxes: Comparison of machine learning model predictions and uncertainties at FLUXNET-CH4 wetlands

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    Identification of plant genotype dependent microbiome recruitment associated with disease resistance against root rot in peas

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    The cultivation of pea (Pisum sativum) is highly constrained by various soil-borne pathogens. Together these pathogens form a pea root rot complex (PRRC) and trigger soil fatigue. Microbiome-mediated disease resistance poses a possible mechanism to mitigate yield loss through PRRC. It is however largely unknown how the PRRC interacts with other members of the root microbiome and how this affects plant resistance. Here, we compared the root microbiome of 252 pea lines in a controlled soil-based phenotyping assay that was previously shown to predict field-relevant resistance against PRRC. Root bacteria and fungi were characterized by 16S rRNA and ITS amplicon sequencing. We analyzed alpha diversity and microbial community composition, and identified heritable hub OTUs. Based on differential abundance analysis we further identified heritable bacterial and fungal hub taxa that are associated with root rot resistance. Subsequent genome-wide association studies revealed plant genomic regions that are significantly correlated with beneficial hub taxa and overall microbial community composition. In a next step, the identified genetic markers will be used to select pea breeding material for field validation of microbiome-mediated resistance against PRRC. This work demonstrates the potential of microbiome-assisted breeding to promote sustainable farming practices

    Record-high Antarctic Peninsula temperatures and surface melt in February 2022: a compound event with an intense atmospheric river

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    International audienceThe Antarctic Peninsula (AP) experienced a new extreme warm event and record-high surface melt in February 2022, rivaling the recent temperature records from 2015 and 2020, and contributing to the alarming series of extreme warm events over this region showing stronger warming compared to the rest of Antarctica. Here, the drivers and impacts of the event are analyzed in detail using a range of observational and modeling data. The northern/northwestern AP was directly impacted by an intense atmospheric river (AR) attaining category 3 on the AR scale, which brought anomalous heat and rainfall, while the AR-enhanced foehn effect further warmed its northeastern side. The event was triggered by multiple large-scale atmospheric circulation patterns linking the AR formation to tropical convection anomalies and stationary Rossby waves, with an anomalous Amundsen Sea Low and a record-breaking high-pressure system east of the AP. This multivariate and spatial compound event culminated in widespread and intense surface melt across the AP. Circulation analog analysis shows that global warming played a role in the amplification and increased probability of the event. Increasing frequency of such events can undermine the stability of the AP ice shelves, with multiple local to global impacts, including acceleration of the AP ice mass loss and changes in sensitive ecosystems

    Australia as a global sink for the genetic diversity of avian influenza A virus

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    Most of our understanding of the ecology and evolution of avian influenza A virus (AIV) in wild birds is derived from studies conducted in the northern hemisphere on waterfowl, with a substantial bias towards dabbling ducks. However, relevant environmental conditions and patterns of avian migration and reproduction are substantially different in the southern hemisphere. Through the sequencing and analysis of 333 unique AIV genomes collected from wild birds collected over 15 years we show that Australia is a global sink for AIV diversity and not integrally linked with the Eurasian gene pool. Rather, AIV are infrequently introduced to Australia, followed by decades of isolated circulation and eventual extinction. The number of co-circulating viral lineages varies per subtype. AIV haemagglutinin (HA) subtypes that are rarely identified at duck-centric study sites (H8-12) had more detected introductions and contemporary co-circulating lineages in Australia. Combined with a lack of duck migration beyond the Australian-Papuan region, these findings suggest introductions by long-distance migratory shorebirds. In addition, on the available data we found no evidence of directional or consistent patterns in virus movement across the Australian continent. This feature corresponds to patterns of bird movement, whereby waterfowl have nomadic and erratic rainfall-dependant distributions rather than consistent intra-continental migratory routes. Finally, we detected high levels of virus gene segment reassortment, with a high diversity of AIV genome constellations across years and locations. These data, in addition to those from other studies in Africa and South America, clearly show that patterns of AIV dynamics in the Southern Hemisphere are distinct from those in the temperate north

    Arterial and Venous Thromboembolic Complications in 832 Patients with BCR-ABL-Negative Myeloproliferative Neoplasms

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    Wille K, Deventer E, Sadjadian P, et al. Arterial and Venous Thromboembolic Complications in 832 Patients with BCR-ABL-Negative Myeloproliferative Neoplasms. Hämostaseologie . 2023.Arterial (ATE) and venous (VTE) thromboembolic complications are common causes of morbidity and mortality in BCR-ABL -negative myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs). However, there are few studies that include all MPN subtypes and focus on both MPN-associated ATE and VTE. In our single-center retrospective study of 832 MPN patients, a total of 180 first thromboembolic events occurred during a median follow-up of 6.6 years (range: 0-37.6 years), of which 105 were VTE and 75 were ATE. The probability of a vascular event at the end of the follow-up period was 36.2%, and the incidence rate for all first ATE/VTE was 2.43% patient/year. The most frequent VTE localizations were deep vein thrombosis with or without pulmonary embolism (incidence rate: 0.59% patient/year), while strokes were the most frequent ATE with an incidence rate of 0.32% patient/year. When comparing the group of patients with ATE/VTE ( n = 180) and the group without such an event ( n = 652) using multivariate Cox regression analyses, patients with polycythemia vera (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.660; [95% confidence interval [CI] 1.206, 2.286]) had a significantly higher risk of a thromboembolic event than the other MPN subtypes. In contrast, patients with a CALR mutation had a significantly lower risk of thromboembolism compared with JAK2 -mutated MPN patients (HR: 0.346; [95% CI: 0.172, 0.699]). In summary, a high incidence of MPN-associated VTE and ATE was observed in our retrospective study. While PV patients or generally JAK2 -mutated MPN patients had a significantly increased risk of such vascular events, this risk was reduced in CALR -mutated MPN patients

    Association of Country Income Level With the Characteristics and Outcomes of Critically Ill Patients Hospitalized With Acute Kidney Injury and COVID-19

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    Introduction: Acute kidney injury (AKI) has been identified as one of the most common and significant problems in hospitalized patients with COVID-19. However, studies examining the relationship between COVID-19 and AKI in low- and low-middle income countries (LLMIC) are lacking. Given that AKI is known to carry a higher mortality rate in these countries, it is important to understand differences in this population. Methods: This prospective, observational study examines the AKI incidence and characteristics of 32,210 patients with COVID-19 from 49 countries across all income levels who were admitted to an intensive care unit during their hospital stay. Results: Among patients with COVID-19 admitted to the intensive care unit, AKI incidence was highest in patients in LLMIC, followed by patients in upper-middle income countries (UMIC) and high-income countries (HIC) (53%, 38%, and 30%, respectively), whereas dialysis rates were lowest among patients with AKI from LLMIC and highest among those from HIC (27% vs. 45%). Patients with AKI in LLMIC had the largest proportion of community-acquired AKI (CA-AKI) and highest rate of in-hospital death (79% vs. 54% in HIC and 66% in UMIC). The association between AKI, being from LLMIC and in-hospital death persisted even after adjusting for disease severity. Conclusions: AKI is a particularly devastating complication of COVID-19 among patients from poorer nations where the gaps in accessibility and quality of healthcare delivery have a major impact on patient outcomes

    Correction: Epidemiology and outcomes of early-onset AKI in COVID-19-related ARDS in comparison with non-COVID-19-related ARDS: insights from two prospective global cohort studies (Critical Care, (2023), 27, 1, (3), 10.1186/s13054-022-04294-5)

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    Following publication of the original article [1], the authors identified that the collaborating authors part of the collaborating author group CCCC Consortium was missing. The collaborating author group is available and included as Additional file 1 in this article

    FLUXNET-CH4: a global, multi-ecosystem dataset and analysis of methane seasonality from freshwater wetlands

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    Abstract. Methane (CH4) emissions from natural landscapes constitute roughly half of global CH4 contributions to the atmosphere, yet large uncertainties remain in the absolute magnitude and the seasonality of emission quantities and drivers. Eddy covariance (EC) measurements of CH4 flux are ideal for constraining ecosystem-scale CH4 emissions due to quasi-continuous and high-temporal-resolution CH4 flux measurements, coincident carbon dioxide, water, and energy flux measurements, lack of ecosystem disturbance, and increased availability of datasets over the last decade. Here, we (1) describe the newly published dataset, FLUXNET-CH4 Version 1.0, the first open-source global dataset of CH4 EC measurements (available at https://fluxnet.org/data/fluxnet-ch4-community-product/, last access: 7 April 2021). FLUXNET-CH4 includes half-hourly and daily gap-filled and non-gap-filled aggregated CH4 fluxes and meteorological data from 79 sites globally: 42 freshwater wetlands, 6 brackish and saline wetlands, 7 formerly drained ecosystems, 7 rice paddy sites, 2 lakes, and 15 uplands. Then, we (2) evaluate FLUXNET-CH4 representativeness for freshwater wetland coverage globally because the majority of sites in FLUXNET-CH4 Version 1.0 are freshwater wetlands which are a substantial source of total atmospheric CH4 emissions; and (3) we provide the first global estimates of the seasonal variability and seasonality predictors of freshwater wetland CH4 fluxes. Our representativeness analysis suggests that the freshwater wetland sites in the dataset cover global wetland bioclimatic attributes (encompassing energy, moisture, and vegetation-related parameters) in arctic, boreal, and temperate regions but only sparsely cover humid tropical regions. Seasonality metrics of wetland CH4 emissions vary considerably across latitudinal bands. In freshwater wetlands (except those between 20‚ąė S to 20‚ąė N) the spring onset of elevated CH4 emissions starts 3 d earlier, and the CH4 emission season lasts 4 d longer, for each degree Celsius increase in mean annual air temperature. On average, the spring onset of increasing CH4 emissions lags behind soil warming by 1 month, with very few sites experiencing increased CH4 emissions prior to the onset of soil warming. In contrast, roughly half of these sites experience the spring onset of rising CH4 emissions prior to the spring increase in gross primary productivity (GPP). The timing of peak summer CH4 emissions does not correlate with the timing for either peak summer temperature or peak GPP. Our results provide seasonality parameters for CH4 modeling and highlight seasonality metrics that cannot be predicted by temperature or GPP (i.e., seasonality of CH4 peak). FLUXNET-CH4 is a powerful new resource for diagnosing and understanding the role of terrestrial ecosystems and climate drivers in the global CH4 cycle, and future additions of sites in tropical ecosystems and site years of data collection will provide added value to this database. All seasonality parameters are available at https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4672601 (Delwiche et al., 2021). Additionally, raw FLUXNET-CH4 data used to extract seasonality parameters can be downloaded from https://fluxnet.org/data/fluxnet-ch4-community-product/ (last access: 7 April 2021), and a complete list of the 79 individual site data DOIs is provided in Table 2 of this paper
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