27,059 research outputs found

    The Theory and Practice of Wage Subsidisation: Some Historical Reflections

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    Economists explain welfare dependency of the unemployed and in-work poverty by the low labour market quality of the poor. Work can be made to pay by working family tax credits. But these might lower wages and price non-recipients out of the market, widening the eligibility for the wage supplementation and raising social welfare bills. This was precisely the effect of the Speenhamland system of wage supplementation of the early 19th Century which permanently affected labour markets, and attitudes to welfare and the poor. The possibility of working family tax credit having a similar effect cannot be ruled out.Wage supplementation, welfare to work and labour markets


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    Risk and Uncertainty,

    Suppressing nonsense--a surprising function for 5-azacytidine.

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    In this issue of EMBO Molecular Medicine, Bhuvanagiri et al report on a chemical means to convert molecular junk into gold. They identify a chemical inhibitor of a quality control pathway that is best known for its ability to clear cells of rubbish, but that in certain cases can be detrimental because it eliminates “useful” garbage. The chemical inhibitor identified by Bhuvanagiri et al perturbs Nonsense‐Mediated RNA Decay (NMD), a RNA surveillance pathway that targets mRNAs harboring premature termination codons (PTCs) for degradation (Kervestin & Jacobson, 2012)

    A failsafe analysis using NASTRAN's piecewise linear analysis and a nine node linear crack element

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    A two-dimensional crack element was implemented into NASTRAN as a user dummy element and used to study failsafe characteristics of the C5A fuselage. The element is formulated from Reitsner's functional requiring that it satisfy compatability with the linear boundary displacement elements in NASTRAN. Its accuracy is demonstrated by analyzing for the stress intensity factors of two simple crack configurations for which there are classic solutions

    Corporate governance and employment relations

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    Using the 2004 United Kingdom Workplace Employment Relations Survey (WERS 2004), this paper examines the impact of corporate governance on HRM practices and employment relations outcomes within organizations in the UK. The analysis suggests that when a remote external stake-holder is assigned dominance, particularly in the case where their liability is limited and the organization is large, the conditioning of managerial commitments on the requirements of the dominant stake-holder has the potential to undermine the effectiveness of the HRM system in achieving its objectives

    Work intensification and employment insecurity in professional work

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    Professional work is a category of employment that has traditionally been associated with high levels of worker autonomy, economic and social status. During the past decade, changes in customer expectations, government policy and technology have generated pressures resulting in enhancement of the quality and efficiency of service provision, expansion in task requirements and a need for higher levels of discretion. In this sense, professional work has been upgraded. However, the changes have also led to a deterioration in the economic and social status of professional work, adversely impacting on the social and psychological well-being of professional workers. This paper examines these developments in five professions including two established professions (lawyers and pharmacists), one aspiring profession (midwives) and two emerging professions (counselling psychologists and human resource managers). The empirical findings are based on a survey of 1270 professional workers conducted in 2000 and 2001

    Absorption of Energy at a Metallic Surface due to a Normal Electric Field

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    The effect of an oscillating electric field normal to a metallic surface may be described by an effective potential. This induced potential is calculated using semiclassical variants of the random phase approximation (RPA). Results are obtained for both ballistic and diffusive electron motion, and for two and three dimensional systems. The potential induced within the surface causes absorption of energy. The results are applied to the absorption of radiation by small metal spheres and discs. They improve upon an earlier treatment which used the Thomas-Fermi approximation for the effective potential.Comment: 19 pages (Plain TeX), 2 figures, 1 table (Postscript

    Partnership in practice

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    This paper examines human resource management practices adopted in a group of eight case study firms and their tendencies towards versus away from partnership. The analysis is based on data collected during interviews with 124 employees (75 in organisations tending towards partnership and 49 in organisations tending away from partnership) and senior managers, conducted in 1997-1998 for the Job Insecurity and Work Intensification Survey (JIWIS). Drawing on the perspectives of senior managers and employees, we examine the tendency of firms towards and away from partnership in employment relations; and in keeping with the JIWIS methodology (Burchell et.al., 2001) we combine quantitative and qualitative evidence in our analysis. Specifically, we are interested in what partnership looks like in these different contexts, the reasons it is pursued (or not), the degree to which companies have been successful in achieving their partnership objectives (from the perspective of both management and employees), and the conditions that have either facilitated or impeded partnership in relationships with employees

    Trade Unions and Training Practices in British Workplaces

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    We use establishment-level data from the 1991 Employers Manpower and Skills Practices Survey (EMSPS) and individual-level data from the Autumn 1993 Quarterly Labour Force Survey (QLFS) to investigate the links between training provision and workplace unionization. We focus on two training measures, an incidence variable and an intensity variable. Both are strongly positively related to whether unions are recognised in the workplace. Working in a unionized establishment substantially raises the probability of receiving training and the amount of training received by British workers. We view these results as confirming the potentially important role that British unions can play in developing skill formation.