29 research outputs found

    Supply risks associated with lithium-ion battery materials

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    One possibility for electrification of road transport consists of battery electric vehicles in combination with carbon-free sources of electricity. It is highly likely that lithium-ion batteries will provide the basis for this development. In the present paper, we use a recently developed, semi-quantitative assessment scheme to evaluate the relative supply risks associated with the elements used in the functional materials of six different lithium-ion battery types. Eleven different indicators in four supply risk categories are applied to each element; the weighting of the indicators is determined by external experts within the framework of an Analytic Hierarchy Process. The range of supply risk values on the elemental level is distinctly narrower than in our previous work on photovoltaic materials. The highest values are obtained for lithium and cobalt; the lowest for aluminium and titanium. Copper, iron, nickel, carbon (graphite), manganese and phosphorous form the middle group. We then carry out the assessment of the six battery types, to give comparative supply risks at the technology level. For this purpose the elemental supply risk values are aggregated using four different methods. Due to the small spread at the elemental level the supply risk values in all four aggregation methods also lie in a narrow range. Removing lithium, aluminium and phosphorous from the analysis, which are present in all types of battery, improves the situation. For aggregation with the simple arithmetic mean, an uncertainty analysis shows that only lithium-iron phosphate has a measurably lower supply risk compared to the other battery types. For the “cost-share” aggregation using seven elements, lithium cobalt oxide has a substantially higher supply risk than most other types

    Hydrogen today

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    Evaluation of large-scale hydrogen storage systems in the German energy sector

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    The increasing share of renewable energies in the German energy sector is changing the present generation structure and requires the usage of more flexible technologies. Storage systems are one option to balance fluctuating electricity generation and demand. But due to the high investments required, all storage technologies have difficulties meeting the challenge of economic feasibility. However, chemical long-term storage technologies that use a gaseous medium as the energy carrier have the advantage of being a versatile storage medium that can be sold on different markets. This paper shows that serving both the electricity and fuel markets has positive impacts on the profitability of hydrogen storage systems. Under favorable conditions, which are characterized by high shares of renewable energies and high prices for energy carriers, a positive economic result is possible