15,151 research outputs found

    The Non-Monotonic Dependence of Supernova and Remnant Formation on Progenitor Rotation

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    Traditional models of core collapse suggest the issue of successful versus failed supernova explosions and neutron star versus black hole formation depends monotonically on the mass (and metallicity) of the progenitor star. Here we argue that the issue of success or failure of the explosion or other possible outcomes may depend non--monotonically on the rotation of the progenitor star even at fixed progenitor mass and composition. We have computed "shellular" models of core collapse for a star of 15 M_solar with initial central angular velocity, Omega_0, in the range 0.1 -- 8 rad/s until a few hundred ms after bounce to explore qualitative trends. The non--monotonic behavior will be manifested in the rotation of the proto--neutron star and hence in the strength of the associated magnetic field that will be generated by shear in that rotating environment. We estimate that our maximally rotating and shearing models generate toroidal fields approaching or exceeding 10^17G, strengths nearing dynamical significance.Comment: 20 pages, 6 figures, accepted for publication in The Astrophysical Journal. Few typos are correcte

    The Supernova-Gamma Ray Burst Connection

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    Supernovae 1998bw and its corresponding relativistically expanding radio source are coincident with the \grb source GRB 980425. We show that of six recent SN Ib/c for which an outburst epoch can be estimated with some reliability, four have radio outbursts and all are correlated in time and space with BATSE \grbs. The joint probability of all six correlations is 1.5×105\times10^{-5}. No such correlation exists for SN Ia and SN II. The \gr\ energy associated with the SN/GRB events is 10461048\sim10^{46} - 10^{48} ergs if emitted isotropically. Economy of hypotheses leads us to propose that all \grbs are associated with supernovae and that the \grb events have a quasi-isotropic component that cannot be observed at cosmological distances and a strongly collimated and Doppler-boosted component that can only be seen if looking nearly along the collimation axis. Such collimation requires a high rate of occurrence perhaps consistent with a supernova rate. The collimated flow may be generated by core collapse to produce rotating, magnetized neutron stars. All core collapse events may produce such jets, but only the ones that occur in supernovae with small or missing hydrogen envelopes, Type Ib or Ic, can propagate into the interstellar medium and yield a visible \grb. We suggest that asymmetries in line profiles and spectropolarimetry of SN II and SN Ib/c, pulsar runaway velocities, soft \gr repeaters and \grbs are associated phenomena.Comment: Submitted to ApJL on May 19, 1998. Revised on Jun 15, 199

    Network Modelling of Fluid Retention Behaviour in Unsaturated Soils

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    The paper describes discrete modelling of the retention behaviour of unsaturated porous materials. A network approach is used within a statistical volume element (SVE), suitable for subsequent use in hydro-mechanical analysis and incorporation within multi-scale numerical modelling. The soil pore structure is modelled by a network of cylindrical pipes connecting spheres, with the spheres representing soil voids and the pipes representing inter-connecting throats. The locations of pipes and spheres are determined by a Voronoi tessellation of the domain. Original aspects of the modelling include a form of periodic boundary condition implementation applied for the first time to this type of network, a new pore volume scaling technique to provide more realistic modelling and a new procedure for initiating drying or wetting paths in a network model employing periodic boundary conditions. Model simulations, employing two linear cumulative probability distributions to represent the distributions of sphere and pipe radii, are presented for the retention behaviour reported from a mercury porosimetry test on a sandstone

    Hydro-mechanical network modelling of particulate composites

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    Differential shrinkage in particulate quasi-brittle materials causes microcracking which reduces durability in these materials by increasing their mass transport properties. A hydro-mechanical three-dimensional periodic network approach was used to investigate the influence of particle and specimen size on the specimen permeability. The particulate quasi-brittle materials studied here consist of stiff elastic particles, and a softer matrix and interfacial transition zones between matrix and particles exhibiting nonlinear material responses. An incrementally applied uniform eigenstrain, along with a damage-plasticity constitutive model, are used to describe the shrinkage and cracking processes of the matrix and interfacial transition zones. The results showed that increasing particle diameter at constant volume fraction increases the crack widths and, therefore, permeability, which confirms previously obtained 2D modelling results. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that specimen thickness has, in comparison to the influence of particle size, a small influence on permeability increase due to microcracking