3,441 research outputs found

    Ervaringen met diverse typen ligboxenstallen

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    Empowerment: Are we all talking about the same thing? Experiences from farmer field schools in Nepal

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    Empowerment, as defined by Farmer Field School project designers, is not based on male and female farmers’ real life practices, experiences and perceptions in Nepal. Initially in farmer field schools empowerment was considered to be achieved through improved access to resources, in particular farm production and knowledge,  later the focus was on increased capabilities of farmers and strengthening their agency. The acquirement of resources alone is not empowerment; it is necessary to consider what people can do with these resources, i.e. the process or agency they exercise and specific historical, socio-cultural and political contexts. Development agencies, such as district agricultural offices or NGOs cannot empower farmers. Agencies involved in farmer field schools may be able to create conditions favourable to empowerment but they cannot make it happen

    Leisurly enjoying Death

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    Empowerment: Are we all talking about the same thing? Experiences from farmer field schools in Nepal

    Get PDF
    Empowerment, as defined by Farmer Field School project designers, is not based on male and female farmers’ real life practices, experiences and perceptions in Nepal. Initially in farmer field schools empowerment was considered to be achieved through improved access to resources, in particular farm production and knowledge,  later the focus was on increased capabilities of farmers and strengthening their agency. The acquirement of resources alone is not empowerment; it is necessary to consider what people can do with these resources, i.e. the process or agency they exercise and specific historical, socio-cultural and political contexts. Development agencies, such as district agricultural offices or NGOs cannot empower farmers. Agencies involved in farmer field schools may be able to create conditions favourable to empowerment but they cannot make it happen

    The distribution of main and embedded structures: V2 and non-V2 orders in North Germanic

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    North Germanic has Verb Second (V2) word order in main but not embedded clauses. Although as a first approximation V2 is a phenomenon characteristic of root clauses, it has long been known that it occurs also in a restricted set of embedded clauses in many, if not all, of the North Germanic languages. Moreover, a wide variety of Norwegian dialects allow deviations from the standard V2 word order in main clause interrogatives. The asymmetric Verb Second pattern thus seemingly breaks down in different ways. This thesis presents new data from large-scale elicited production experiments targeting the placement of the finite verb in both main and embedded clauses. The distribution of deviations from the standard word order pattern, and the constraints on the environments where these are produced are of primary concern. In addition, results from a Norwegian production experiment where speech was elicited in two ways -- using standardised written language and using spoken dialect as the elicitation source, show that most speakers directly activate morphophonological forms from the local dialect when encountering standardised orthographic forms. This suggests that speakers do not treat the written and spoken language as different grammars. Furthermore, we find syntactic variation which does not track the morphophonological variation, suggesting that a code/register-switching alone cannot explain syntactic optionality. Overall, the results of the various studies within this thesis show that variation in the position of the verb, is found not only between languages, but within languages and within speakers. I therefore conclude that verb placement in North Germanic is not fully grammaticised. As an alternative, this thesis proposes a uniform syntactic structure for main and embedded clauses in North Germanic. In this structure, verb position is non-categorical though correlated with assertion semantics (embedded clauses) and prosody and lexicon (Norwegian main clauses)

    Preventive antibiotic therapy in acute stroke

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    Stroke is the second most common cause of death and the third most common cause of disability worldwide. Infections complicate stroke in about one-third of patients and they are associated with unfavourable disease outcome and mortality. This thesis is focused on the ‘Preventive Antibiotics in Stroke Study’ (PASS), a multicenter randomised clinical trial aimed at prevention of infections with antibiotic therapy to improve functional outcome in stroke patients. 2550 stroke patients were randomised to ceftriaxone in addition to standard therapy, or standard therapy alone. Preventive antibiotic therapy did not improve functional outcome at 3 months. It did prevent infections, but this was merely due to prevention of urinary tract infection, pneumonia was not prevented. We also described the cost-effectiveness analysis of the PASS in this thesis. This showed that preventive antibiotic therapy was likely to be a cost-effective treatment, although the possible costs of future antimicrobial resistance were not included in this analysis. Patients are vulnerable for infection after stroke due to immune suppression, partly mediated by the sympathetic nervous system. We also investigated whether pre-stroke use of beta-blockers could decrease infection rate, but found that infection rates were increased in patients with pre-stroke beta-blocker use. Finally, we describe a prediction rule for pneumonia and infection after stroke. This prediction rule can be used to select the patients at the highest risk for these infections for future trials. Future trials should be focused on diagnosis of post-stroke infection and combined treatment approaches for fever, infection and aspiration

    Cavity optomechanics in vertically-coupled photonic crystal nanobeams and membranes

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    In the last decade the field of optomechanics has emerged that explores the interactionbetween light and mechanical motions. Photonic crystal cavities are promising for observinglarge optical forces, because of their large quality factors and very small modevolumes. In addition the use of multilayer photonic crystal (PhC) cavities could introducean additional contribution to the optical forces due to a mechanical modulation ofthe coupling strength between the cavities and thus the splitting of cavity modes.Optomechanical effects in vertically-coupled PhC nanobeams and membranes are studiedin this work. First, a general description of the theory behind optomechanics is givenand an original derivation of the expression for the optical force in the case of dissipativecoupling is given. Then the experimental results in two different systems are shown. The first system consists of two gallium arsenide (GaAs) PhC nanobeams that are vertically-coupled.These are characterized and devices with optical and mechanical quality factorsup to Q = 1300 and QM = 1900 are found. The optical spring effect is also observed inthese nanobeams and from this effect optomechanical vacuum coupling rates in the orderof tenths of MHz are calculated, close to record values reported for other photonic crystaldevices. The second system consists of two vertically coupled GaAs PhC membranes thatare suspended in air. Along the center axis of the membrane a line defect (waveguide)with a L3 cavity in the center is created in the PhC. The cavity is coupled via the PhCwaveguides and suspended nanobeams to double ridge waveguides, which can guide lightfrom and to the edge of the sample. The losses in these gallium arsenide / aluminumgallium arsenide double ridge waveguides (RWG) are investigated and waveguides withreasonably small losses around 15 dB/cm are attained. Coupling into this double RWG is achieved with an efficiency of 1%. A preliminary characterization of the vertically-coupledmembranes show the existence of fundamental symmetric and anti-symmetricmodes with optical quality factors up to Q = 1900. Photoluminescence spectra collectedfrom the side of the double-membrane PhC cavities, for non-resonant pumping from thetop, show that the fundamental anti-symmetric cavity mode can couple to and propagatethrough the double ridge waveguides and fibers more efficiently than the symmetric one.Furthermore, resonances from the slow-light region of two waveguide modes have beenobserved both from the top and the side collection. In the last decade the field of optomechanics has emerged that explores the interactionbetween light and mechanical motions. Photonic crystal cavities are promising for observinglarge optical forces, because of their large quality factors and very small modevolumes. In addition the use of multilayer photonic crystal (PhC) cavities could introducean additional contribution to the optical forces due to a mechanical modulation ofthe coupling strength between the cavities and thus the splitting of cavity modes.Optomechanical effects in vertically-coupled PhC nanobeams and membranes are studiedin this work. First, a general description of the theory behind optomechanics is givenand an original derivation of the expression for the optical force in the case of dissipativecoupling is given. Then the experimental results in two different systems are shown. The first system consists of two gallium arsenide (GaAs) PhC nanobeams that are vertically-coupled.These are characterized and devices with optical and mechanical quality factorsup to Q = 1300 and QM = 1900 are found. The optical spring effect is also observed inthese nanobeams and from this effect optomechanical vacuum coupling rates in the orderof tenths of MHz are calculated, close to record values reported for other photonic crystaldevices. The second system consists of two vertically coupled GaAs PhC membranes thatare suspended in air. Along the center axis of the membrane a line defect (waveguide)with a L3 cavity in the center is created in the PhC. The cavity is coupled via the PhCwaveguides and suspended nanobeams to double ridge waveguides, which can guide lightfrom and to the edge of the sample. The losses in these gallium arsenide / aluminumgallium arsenide double ridge waveguides (RWG) are investigated and waveguides withreasonably small losses around 15 dB/cm are attained. Coupling into this double RWG is achieved with an efficiency of 1%. A preliminary characterization of the vertically-coupledmembranes show the existence of fundamental symmetric and anti-symmetricmodes with optical quality factors up to Q = 1900. Photoluminescence spectra collectedfrom the side of the double-membrane PhC cavities, for non-resonant pumping from thetop, show that the fundamental anti-symmetric cavity mode can couple to and propagatethrough the double ridge waveguides and fibers more efficiently than the symmetric one.Furthermore, resonances from the slow-light region of two waveguide modes have beenobserved both from the top and the side collection

    Doing good:Local and global understandings of Buddhism in Hong Kong's Umbrella Movement

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    In this paper, I present Hong Kong Buddhism as a construct of modernity, particularly and paradoxically in its emphasis on tradition. 'Modern Buddhism' shapes how Buddhists in Hong Kong reflect on their religion and their being in the world. The latter is seen in how Hong Kong Buddhists responded to the 2014 Umbrella Movement. Although the Umbrella Movement was in essence a political movement seeking universal suffrage, it indirectly highlighted the importance of religion in the everyday lives of Hong Kong middle-class residents. While some Buddhists went to the protest sites, others stayed at home to meditate, and many decided to disengage from the protests altogether. While differing in terms of civic engagement, there is significant similarity in these narratives regarding the perception of how to act as ‘good’ Buddhists
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