261 research outputs found

    General properties and analytical approximations of photorefractive solitons

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    We investigate general properties of spatial 1-dimensional bright photorefractive solitons and suggest various analytical approximations for the soliton profile and the half width, both depending on an intensity parameter r

    Elektronenstrahl-angeregter chemischer HF-Laser. - Electron-beam initiated HF chemical laser.

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    Isotopic Insights into Biological Regulation of Zinc in Contaminated Systems

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    AbstractAquatic organisms use a variety ofbiogeochemical reactions to regulate essential and non-essential trace metals. Many of these mechanisms can lead to isotopic fractionation, thus measurement of metal isotopes may yield insights into the processes by which organisms respond to metal exposure. We illustrate these concepts with two case studies, one involving an intra- and the other an extra-cellular mechanism of Zn sequestration. In the first study, the mayflyNeocloeontrianguliferwas grown in the laboratory, and fed a diet of Zn-doped diatoms at Zn levels exceeding the requirements for normal mayfly life functions. The N. trianguliferlarvae consumed the diatoms and retained their Zn isotopic signature. Upon metamorphosis, the subimago life stage lost Zn mass either in the exuvia or by excretion, and the Zn retainedwas isotopically enriched. Thus, Zn uptake is non-fractionating, but Zn regulation favors the lighter isotope. Thus the Zn remaining in the subimago was isotopically heavier. In the second study, Zn was adsorbed on the cell walls and exopolysaccharide secretions of cyanobacteria, which favored the heavier Zn isotope.Continued adsorption eventually resulted in nucleation and biomineralization of hydrozincite {Zn5(CO3)2(OH)6}. These case studies demonstrate the utility of Zn isotopes to provide insights into how aquatic insects respond to metal exposure