179 research outputs found

    Economic Burden for Lung Cancer Survivors in Urban China.

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    BackgroundWith the rapid increase in the incidence and mortality of lung cancer, a growing number of lung cancer patients and their families are faced with a tremendous economic burden because of the high cost of treatment in China. This study was conducted to estimate the economic burden and patient responsibility of lung cancer patients and the impact of this burden on family income.MethodsThis study uses data from a retrospective questionnaire survey conducted in 10 communities in urban China and includes 195 surviving lung cancer patients diagnosed over the previous five years. The calculation of direct economic burden included both direct medical and direct nonmedical costs. Indirect costs were calculated using the human capital approach, which measures the productivity lost for both patients and family caregivers. The price index was applied for the cost calculation.ResultsThe average economic burden from lung cancer was 43,336perpatient,ofwhichthedirectcostpercapitawas43,336 per patient, of which the direct cost per capita was 42,540 (98.16%) and the indirect cost per capita was 795(1.84795 (1.84%). Of the total direct medical costs, 35.66% was paid by the insurer and 9.84% was not covered by insurance. The economic burden for diagnosed lung cancer patients in the first year following diagnosis was 30,277 per capita, which accounted for 171% of the household annual income, a percentage that fell to 107% after subtracting the compensation from medical insurance.ConclusionsThe economic burden for lung cancer patients is substantial in the urban areas of China, and an effective control strategy to lower the cost is urgently needed

    Measurement of the Usage of Web Clips in Underground Economy

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    In this paper, we study the ecosystem of the abused Web Clips in underground economy. Through this study, we find the Web Clips is wildly used by perpetrators to penetrate iOS devices to gain profit. This work starts with 1,800 user complaint documents about cyber crimes over Web Clips. We firstly look into the ecosystem of abused Web Clips and point out the main participants and workflow. In addition, what is the Web Clips used for is demystified. Then the main participants, including creators, distributors, and operators are deeply studied based on our dataset. We try to reveal the prominent features of the illicit Web Clips and give some mitigation measures. Analysis reveals that 1) SSL certificate is overwhelmingly preferred for signing Web Clips instances compared with certificate issued by Apple. The wildly used SSL certificates can be aggregated into a limited group. 2) The content of the abused Web Clips falls into a few categories, `Gambling', `Fraud', and `Pornography' are among the top categories. 3) Instant messenger (IM) and live streaming platform are the most popular medium to trick victims into deploying the Web Clips. 4) The Web Clips are operated by a small amount of perpetrators, and the perpetrators tend to evade detection by taking technical approach, such as registering domain names through oversea domain name service provider, preferring easy-to-acquire new gTLD (global Top Level Domain), and deploying anti-crawler tricks. Our study gives hints on investigation of cyber crime over Web Clips, we hope that this work can help stakeholders to stay ahead of the threat

    Soft-bodied adaptive multimodal locomotion strategies in fluid-filled confined spaces

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    Soft-bodied locomotion in fluid-filled confined spaces is critical for future wireless medical robots operating inside vessels, tubes, channels, and cavities of the human body, which are filled with stagnant or flowing biological fluids. However, the active soft-bodied locomotion is challenging to achieve when the robot size is comparable with the cross-sectional dimension of these confined spaces. Here, we propose various control and performance enhancement strategies to let the sheet-shaped soft millirobots achieve multimodal locomotion, including rolling, undulatory crawling, undulatory swimming, and helical surface crawling depending on different fluid-filled confined environments. With these locomotion modes, the sheet-shaped soft robot can navigate through straight or bent gaps with varying sizes, tortuous channels, and tubes with a flowing fluid inside. Such soft robot design along with its control and performance enhancement strategies are promising to be applied in future wireless soft medical robots inside various fluid-filled tight regions of the human body

    Bioinspired cilia arrays with programmable nonreciprocal motion and metachronal coordination

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    Coordinated nonreciprocal dynamics in biological cilia is essential to many living systems, where the emergentmetachronal waves of cilia have been hypothesized to enhance net fluid flows at low Reynolds numbers (Re). Experimental investigation of this hypothesis is critical but remains challenging. Here, we report soft miniature devices with both ciliary nonreciprocal motion and metachronal coordination and use them to investigate the quantitative relationship between metachronal coordination and the induced fluid flow. We found that only antiplectic metachronal waves with specific wave vectors could enhance fluid flows compared with the synchronized case. These findings further enable various bioinspired cilia arrays with unique functionalities of pumping and mixing viscous synthetic and biological complex fluids at low Re. Our design method and developed soft miniature devices provide unprecedented opportunities for studying ciliary biomechanics and creating cilia-inspired wireless microfluidic pumping, object manipulation and lab- and organ-on-a-chip devices, mobile microrobots, and bioengineering systems.ISSN:2375-254