1,815 research outputs found

    Ashkii Bizaad: Verbal Morphology Loss in One Young Speaker\u27s Navajo

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    With a rich verbal morphology and an aging population of native speakers, Navajo offers a valuable opportunity to examine language attrition in detail. Few Navajo children grow up completely unexposed to their heritage language, yet the number raised as monolingual English speakers has risen sharply in the past thirty years. This thesis compares one young speaker\u27s production of verbs with conservative, textbook forms, analyzes the patterns found within this comparison, and draws on similar processes in the dying languages Dyirbal and Romansch to place these Navajo data in the larger context of language attrition

    The importance of antennae for pea aphid wing induction in presence of natural enemies

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    Forest management intensity affects aquatic communities in artificial tree holes

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    Forest management could potentially affect organisms in all forest habitats. However, aquatic communities in water-filled tree-holes may be especially sensitive because of small population sizes, the risk of drought and potential dispersal limitation. We set up artificial tree holes in forest stands subject to different management intensities in two regions in Germany and assessed the influence of local environmental properties (tree-hole opening type, tree diameter, water volume and water temperature) as well as regional drivers (forest management intensity, tree-hole density) on tree-hole insect communities (not considering other organisms such as nematodes or rotifers), detritus content, oxygen and nutrient concentrations. In addition, we compared data from artificial tree holes with data from natural tree holes in the same area to evaluate the methodological approach of using tree-hole analogues. We found that forest management had strong effects on communities in artificial tree holes in both regions and across the season. Abundance and species richness declined, community composition shifted and detritus content declined with increasing forest management intensity. Environmental variables, such as tree-hole density and tree diameter partly explained these changes. However, dispersal limitation, indicated by effects of tree-hole density, generally showed rather weak impacts on communities. Artificial tree holes had higher water temperatures (on average 2° C higher) and oxygen concentrations (on average 25% higher) than natural tree holes. The abundance of organisms was higher but species richness was lower in artificial tree holes. Community composition differed between artificial and natural tree holes. Negative management effects were detectable in both tree-hole systems, despite their abiotic and biotic differences. Our results indicate that forest management has substantial and pervasive effects on tree-hole communities and may alter their structure and functioning. We furthermore conclude that artificial tree-hole analogues represent a useful experimental alternative to test effects of changes in forest management on natural communities.Fil: Petermann, Jana S.. University of Salzburg; Austria. Berlin-Brandenburg Institute of Advanced Biodiversity Research; AlemaniaFil: Rohland, Anja. Friedrich Schiller University; AlemaniaFil: Sichardt, Nora. Friedrich Schiller University; AlemaniaFil: Lade, Peggy. Friedrich Schiller University; AlemaniaFil: Guidetti, Brenda Yamile. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas; Argentina. Friedrich Schiller University; AlemaniaFil: Weisser, Wolfgang W.. Friedrich Schiller University; Alemania. Technische Universität München; AlemaniaFil: Gossner, Martin M.. Friedrich Schiller University; Alemania. Technische Universität München; Alemani

    Coevolutionary fine-tuning: evidence for genetic tracking between a specialist wasp parasitoid and its aphid host in a dual metapopulation interaction

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    In the interaction between two ecologically-associated species, the population structure of one species may affect the population structure of the other. Here, we examine the population structures of the aphid Metopeurum fuscoviride, a specialist on tansy Tanacetum vulgare, and its specialist primary hymenopterous parasitoid Lysiphlebus hirticornis, both of which are characterized by multivoltine life histories and a classic metapopulation structure. Samples of the aphid host and the parasitoid were collected from eight sites in and around Jena, Germany, where both insect species co-occur, and then were genotyped using suites of polymorphic microsatellite markers. The host aphid was greatly differentiated in terms of its spatial population genetic patterning, while the parasitoid was, in comparison, only moderately differentiated. There was a positive Mantel test correlation between pairwise shared allele distance (DAS) of the host and parasitoid, i.e. if host subpopulation samples were more similar between two particular sites, so were the parasitoid subpopulation samples. We argue that while the differences in the levels of genetic differentiation are due to the differences in the biology of the species, the correlations between host and parasitoid are indicative of dependence of the parasitoid population structure on that of its aphid host. The parasitoid is genetically tracking behind the aphid host, as can be expected in a classic metapopulation structure where host persistence depends on a delay between host and parasitoid colonization of the patch. The results may also have relevance to the Red Queen hypothesis, whereupon in the ‘arms race’ between parasitoid and its host, the latter ‘attempts’ to evolve away from the former

    Normal values of blood pressure self-measurement in view of the 1999 World Health Organization-International Society of Hypertension guidelines

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    New guidelines for the management of hypertension have been published in 1999 by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the International Society of Hypertension (ISH). The WHO/ISH Committee has adopted in principle the definition and classification of hypertension provided by the JNC VI (1997). The new classification defines a blood pressure of 120/80 mm Hg as optimal and of 130/85 mm Hg as the limit between normal and high-normal blood pressure. It is unclear which self-measured home blood pressure values correspond to these office blood pressure limits. In this study we reevaluated data from our Dübendorf study to determine self-measured blood pressure values corresponding to optimal and normal office blood pressure using the percentiles of the (office and home) blood pressure distributions of 503 individuals (age, 20 to 90 years; mean age, 46.5 years; 265 men, 238 women). Self-measured blood pressure values corresponding to office values of 130/85 mm Hg and 120/80 mm Hg were 124.1/79.9 mm Hg and 114.3/75.1 mm Hg. Thus, we propose 125/80 mm Hg as a home blood pressure corresponding to an office blood pressure of 130/85 mm Hg (WHO 1999: normal) and 115/75 mm Hg corresponding to 120/80 mm Hg (optimal). Am J Hypertens 2000;13:940-943 © 2000 American Journal of Hypertension, Lt

    Complementarity effects through dietary mixing enhance the performance of a generalist insect herbivore

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    The ontogenetic niche concept predicts that resource use depends on an organism’s developmental stage. This concept has been investigated primarily in animals that show differing resource use strategies as juveniles and as adults, such as amphibians. We studied resource use and performance in the grasshopper Chorthippus parallelus (Orthoptera, Acrididae) provided with food plant mixtures of either one, three or eight plant species throughout their development. C. parallelus survival and fecundity was highest in the food plant mixture with eight plant species and lowest in the treatments where only one single plant species was offered as food. C. parallelus’ consumption throughout its ontogeny depended on sex, and feeding on different plant species was dependent on a grasshopper’s developmental stage. To depict grasshopper foraging in food plant mixtures compared to foraging on single plant species, we introduce the term “relative forage total” (RFT) based on an approach used in biodiversity research by Loreau and Hector (Nature 413:548–274, 2001). RFT of grasshoppers in food plant mixtures was always higher than what would have been expected from foraging in monocultures. The increase in food consumption was due to an overall increase in feeding on plant species in mixtures compared to consumption of the same species offered as a single diet. Thus we argue that grasshopper foraging exhibits complementarity effects. Our results reinforce the necessity to consider development-related changes in insect herbivore feeding. Thorough information on the feeding ontogeny of insect herbivores could not only elucidate their nutritional ecology but also help to shed light on their functional role in plant communities

    The effects of mutualistic ants on aphid life history traits

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    The relationship between homopterans and ants is generally thought to be mutualistic, as both partners seem to benefit from an association. In aphids, previous studies have shown that ant tending improves the survival and reproduction of aphid colonies, mainly by protection of aphids from enemy attack. However, the effects of ant tending on the fitness of individual aphids have rarely been addressed. We investigated the effects of ant tending on life history traits of aphids feeding singly on a host plant, in the absence of natural enemies. A factorial design allowed us to control for variation in the level of tending effort among individual ant colonies. The presence of workers of the ant Lasius niger had a strong positive effect on the fitness of individuals of the aphid Metopeurum fuscoviride. Ant-tended individuals lived longer, matured earlier, had a higher rate of reproduction, and a higher expected number of offspring than aphids not tended by ants. An aphid’s longevity was significantly correlated with the daily mean number of workers tending it. The strong dependence of aphid fitness on the level of ant tending shows that ants can influence aphid life history traits even when aphids occur singly on plants

    Pitfall trap sampling bias depends on body mass, temperature, and trap number: insights from an individual-based model

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    The diversity and community composition of ground arthropods is routinely analyzed by pitfall trap sampling, which is a cost- and time-effective method to gather large numbers of replicates but also known to generate data that are biased by species-specific differences in locomotory activity. Previous studies have looked at factors that influence the sampling bias. These studies, however, were limited to one or few species and did rarely quantify how the species-specific sampling bias shapes community-level diversity metrics. In this study, we systematically quantify the species-specific and community-level sampling bias with an allometric individual-based model that simulates movement and pitfall sampling of 10 generic ground arthropod species differing in body mass. We perform multiple simulation experiments covering different scenarios of pitfall trap number, spatial trap arrangement, temperature, and population density. We show that the sampling bias decreased strongly with increasing body mass, temperature, and pitfall trap number, while population density had no effect and trap arrangement only had little effect. The average movement speed of a species in the field integrates body mass and temperature effects and could be used to derive reliable estimates of absolute species abundance. We demonstrate how unbiased relative species abundance can be derived using correction factors that need only information on species body mass. We find that community-level diversity metrics are sensitive to the particular community structure, namely the relation between body mass and relative abundance across species. Generally, pitfall trap sampling flattens the rank-abundance distribution and leads to overestimations of ground arthropod Shannon diversity. We conclude that the correction of the species-specific pitfall trap sampling bias is necessary for the reliability of conclusions drawn from ground arthropod field studies. We propose bias correction is a manageable task using either body mass to derive unbiased relative abundance or the average speed to derive reliable estimates of absolute abundance from pitfall trap sampling