58,388 research outputs found

    The Genomic and Epigenomic Landscape of Double-Negative Metastatic Prostate Cancer.

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    UNLABELLED: Systemic targeted therapy in prostate cancer is primarily focused on ablating androgen signaling. Androgen deprivation therapy and second-generation androgen receptor (AR)-targeted therapy selectively favor the development of treatment-resistant subtypes of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC), defined by AR and neuroendocrine (NE) markers. Molecular drivers of double-negative (AR-/NE-) mCRPC are poorly defined. In this study, we comprehensively characterized treatment-emergent mCRPC by integrating matched RNA sequencing, whole-genome sequencing, and whole-genome bisulfite sequencing from 210 tumors. AR-/NE- tumors were clinically and molecularly distinct from other mCRPC subtypes, with the shortest survival, amplification of the chromatin remodeler CHD7, and PTEN loss. Methylation changes in CHD7 candidate enhancers were linked to elevated CHD7 expression in AR-/NE+ tumors. Genome-wide methylation analysis nominated KrĂĽppel-like factor 5 (KLF5) as a driver of the AR-/NE- phenotype, and KLF5 activity was linked to RB1 loss. These observations reveal the aggressiveness of AR-/NE- mCRPC and could facilitate the identification of therapeutic targets in this highly aggressive disease. SIGNIFICANCE: Comprehensive characterization of the five subtypes of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer identified transcription factors that drive each subtype and showed that the double-negative subtype has the worst prognosis

    sj-docx-1-phr-10.1177_00333549231218725 – Supplemental material for An Evaluation of Messages to Promote Parental Intent to Vaccinate Children Aged <12 Years Against COVID-19

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    Supplemental material, sj-docx-1-phr-10.1177_00333549231218725 for An Evaluation of Messages to Promote Parental Intent to Vaccinate Children Aged <12 Years Against COVID-19 by Isabella L. Chan, Kelsey Schwarz, Nicole Weinstein, Gordon Mansergh, Ramzi W. Nahhas, Deborah Gelaude, Robert Alexander, Leslie Rodriguez, Warren Strauss, Torey Repetski, Nancy Sullivan, Everett Long, Steve L. Evener, Adrienne Garbarino and Laura M. Mercer Kollar in Public Health Reports</p

    The DUNE Far Detector Vertical Drift Technology, Technical Design Report

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    International audienceDUNE is an international experiment dedicated to addressing some of the questions at the forefront of particle physics and astrophysics, including the mystifying preponderance of matter over antimatter in the early universe. The dual-site experiment will employ an intense neutrino beam focused on a near and a far detector as it aims to determine the neutrino mass hierarchy and to make high-precision measurements of the PMNS matrix parameters, including the CP-violating phase. It will also stand ready to observe supernova neutrino bursts, and seeks to observe nucleon decay as a signature of a grand unified theory underlying the standard model. The DUNE far detector implements liquid argon time-projection chamber (LArTPC) technology, and combines the many tens-of-kiloton fiducial mass necessary for rare event searches with the sub-centimeter spatial resolution required to image those events with high precision. The addition of a photon detection system enhances physics capabilities for all DUNE physics drivers and opens prospects for further physics explorations. Given its size, the far detector will be implemented as a set of modules, with LArTPC designs that differ from one another as newer technologies arise. In the vertical drift LArTPC design, a horizontal cathode bisects the detector, creating two stacked drift volumes in which ionization charges drift towards anodes at either the top or bottom. The anodes are composed of perforated PCB layers with conductive strips, enabling reconstruction in 3D. Light-trap-style photon detection modules are placed both on the cryostat's side walls and on the central cathode where they are optically powered. This Technical Design Report describes in detail the technical implementations of each subsystem of this LArTPC that, together with the other far detector modules and the near detector, will enable DUNE to achieve its physics goals

    The DUNE Far Detector Vertical Drift Technology, Technical Design Report

    No full text
    International audienceDUNE is an international experiment dedicated to addressing some of the questions at the forefront of particle physics and astrophysics, including the mystifying preponderance of matter over antimatter in the early universe. The dual-site experiment will employ an intense neutrino beam focused on a near and a far detector as it aims to determine the neutrino mass hierarchy and to make high-precision measurements of the PMNS matrix parameters, including the CP-violating phase. It will also stand ready to observe supernova neutrino bursts, and seeks to observe nucleon decay as a signature of a grand unified theory underlying the standard model. The DUNE far detector implements liquid argon time-projection chamber (LArTPC) technology, and combines the many tens-of-kiloton fiducial mass necessary for rare event searches with the sub-centimeter spatial resolution required to image those events with high precision. The addition of a photon detection system enhances physics capabilities for all DUNE physics drivers and opens prospects for further physics explorations. Given its size, the far detector will be implemented as a set of modules, with LArTPC designs that differ from one another as newer technologies arise. In the vertical drift LArTPC design, a horizontal cathode bisects the detector, creating two stacked drift volumes in which ionization charges drift towards anodes at either the top or bottom. The anodes are composed of perforated PCB layers with conductive strips, enabling reconstruction in 3D. Light-trap-style photon detection modules are placed both on the cryostat's side walls and on the central cathode where they are optically powered. This Technical Design Report describes in detail the technical implementations of each subsystem of this LArTPC that, together with the other far detector modules and the near detector, will enable DUNE to achieve its physics goals

    A Mechanistic Understanding of the Modes of Ca<sup>2+</sup> Ion Binding to the SARS-CoV‑1 Fusion Peptide and Their Role in the Dynamics of Host Membrane Penetration

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    The SARS-CoV-1 spike glycoprotein contains a fusion peptide (FP) segment that mediates the fusion of the viral and host cell membranes. Calcium ions are thought to position the FP optimally for membrane insertion by interacting with negatively charged residues in this segment (E801, D802, D812, E821, D825, and D830); however, which residues bind to calcium and in what combinations supportive of membrane insertion are unknown. Using biological assays and molecular dynamics studies, we have determined the functional configurations of FP-Ca2+ binding that likely promote membrane insertion. We first individually mutated the negatively charged residues in the SARS CoV-1 FP to assay their roles in cell entry and syncytia formation, finding that charge loss in the D802A or D830A mutants greatly reduced syncytia formation and pseudoparticle transduction of VeroE6 cells. Interestingly, one mutation (D812A) led to a modest increase in cell transduction, further indicating that FP function likely depends on calcium binding at specific residues and in specific combinations. To interpret these results mechanistically and identify specific modes of FP-Ca2+ binding that modulate membrane insertion, we performed molecular dynamics simulations of the SARS-CoV-1 FP and Ca2+ions. The preferred residue pairs for Ca2+ binding we identified (E801/D802, E801/D830, and D812/E821) include the two residues found to be essential for S function in our biological studies (D802 and D830). The three preferred Ca2+ binding pairs were also predicted to promote FP membrane insertion. We also identified a Ca2+ binding pair (E821/D825) predicted to inhibit FP membrane insertion. We then carried out simulations in the presence of membranes and found that binding of Ca2+ to SARS-CoV-1 FP residue pairs E801/D802 and D812/E821 facilitates membrane insertion by enabling the peptide to adopt conformations that shield the negative charges of the FP to reduce repulsion by the membrane phospholipid headgroups. This calcium binding mode also optimally positions the hydrophobic LLF region of the FP for membrane penetration. Conversely, Ca2+ binding to the FP E801/D802 and D821/D825 pairs eliminates the negative charge screening and instead creates a repulsive negative charge that hinders membrane penetration of the LLF motif. These computational results, taken together with our biological studies, provide an improved and nuanced mechanistic understanding of the dymanics of SARS-CoV-1 calcium binding and their potential effects on host cell entry

    GWTC-2.1: Deep extended catalog of compact binary coalescences observed by LIGO and Virgo during the first half of the third observing run