8 research outputs found

    THE ECONOMIC CONSEQUENCES OF ENSO EVENTS: THE 1997-98 EL NINO AND THE 1998-99 LA NINA

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    Climate is the primary determinant of agricultural productivity. In many parts of the world, including the United States, one can trace much of the year-to-year variations in climate to the El Nino-Southern Oscillation phenomenon. In 1997-98 the world experienced a severe El event and this is being flowed by a strong 1998-99 La Nina. The work underlying this develops estimates of the economic consequences of these events on U.S. agriculture. Both phases result in economic damages -- a 1.5to1.5 to 1.7 billion loss for the El Nino and a 2.2to2.2 to 6.5 billion for La Nina. The major conclusion is that ENSO events do impose costs on agriculture and consumers

    DEVELOPING BETTER ECONOMIC INFORMATION ABOUT COASTAL RESOURCES AS A TOOL FOR INTEGRATED COASTAL MANAGEMENT

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    Measuring economic activity associated with the ocean through examination of the goods and services produced by specified industries and in coastal locations will provide answers to many of the most commonly asked questions about the ocean economy. But even this data will still be incomplete. Beyond are a variety of non-market values, which are needed to complete the picture. When someone goes to the beach in Florida or boats on Chesapeake Bay, there may be little that is directly purchased on that day. But the popularity of such activities is testament to their underlying value. Economists have developed a variety of techniques to measure such values, and a large number of studies have been done throughout the country using these techniques. The Project intends to compile the results of these studies into the ocean economy database to provide researchers with access to the information that has been generated. The resulting integrated, web-accessible database will provide as comprehensive a picture as possible of the economic values associated with the ocean. It will provide historical data, and because it is estimated as much as possible on a consistent basis, it can be used to compare these values across time and space. But there will still be important limitations. Requirements to maintain confidentiality of data will require that many smaller geographic areas cannot be described in the same level of detail as larger regions. The surveys of industries conducted by the Census Bureau that underlie the national data and which will be used to disaggregate to the industrial and geographic level will have sampling limitations that will require some indirect estimating techniques. The nonmarket values are estimated using complex techniques that can result in widely varying figures for the same resources

    Economic valuation of natural resources: a handbook for coastal resource policymakers

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    Professionals who are responsible for coastal environmental and natural resource planning and management have a need to become conversant with new concepts designed to provide quantitative measures of the environmental benefits of natural resources. These amenities range from beaches to wetlands to clean water and other assets that normally are not bought and sold in everyday markets. At all levels of government — from federal agencies to townships and counties — decisionmakers are being asked to account for the costs and benefits of proposed actions. To non-specialists, the tools of professional economists are often poorly understood and sometimes inappropriate for the problem at hand. This handbook is intended to bridge this gap. The most widely used organizing tool for dealing with natural and environmental resource choices is benefit-cost analysis — it offers a convenient way to carefully identify and array, quantitatively if possible, the major costs, benefits, and consequences of a proposed policy or regulation. The major strength of benefit-cost analysis is not necessarily the predicted outcome, which depends upon assumptions and techniques, but the process itself, which forces an approach to decision-making that is based largely on rigorous and quantitative reasoning. However, a major shortfall of benefit-cost analysis has been the difficulty of quantifying both benefits and costs of actions that impact environmental assets not normally, nor even regularly, bought and sold in markets. Failure to account for these assets, to omit them from the benefit-cost equation, could seriously bias decisionmaking, often to the detriment of the environment. Economists and other social scientists have put a great deal of effort into addressing this shortcoming by developing techniques to quantify these non-market benefits. The major focus of this handbook is on introducing and illustrating concepts of environmental valuation, among them Travel Cost models and Contingent Valuation. These concepts, combined with advances in natural sciences that allow us to better understand how changes in the natural environment influence human behavior, aim to address some of the more serious shortcomings in the application of economic analysis to natural resource and environmental management and policy analysis. Because the handbook is intended for non-economists, it addresses basic concepts of economic value such as willingness-to-pay and other tools often used in decision making such as costeffectiveness analysis, economic impact analysis, and sustainable development. A number of regionally oriented case studies are included to illustrate the practical application of these concepts and techniques

    THE ECONOMIC CONSEQUENCES OF ENSO EVENTS: THE 1997-98 EL NINO AND THE 1998-99 LA NINA

    No full text
    Climate is the primary determinant of agricultural productivity. In many parts of the world, including the United States, one can trace much of the year-to-year variations in climate to the El Nino-Southern Oscillation phenomenon. In 1997-98 the world experienced a severe El event and this is being flowed by a strong 1998-99 La Nina. The work underlying this develops estimates of the economic consequences of these events on U.S. agriculture. Both phases result in economic damages -- a 1.5to1.5 to 1.7 billion loss for the El Nino and a 2.2to2.2 to 6.5 billion for La Nina. The major conclusion is that ENSO events do impose costs on agriculture and consumers.Resource /Energy Economics and Policy,

    The Economic Consequences Of Enso Events: The 1997-98 El Niyyo And The 1998-99 La Niyya

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    Climate is the primary determinant of agricultural productivity. In many parts of the world, including the United States, one can trace much of the year-to-year variations in climate to the El NiZo-Southern Oscillation phenomenon. In 1997-98 the world experienced a severe El event and this is being floowed by a strong 1998-99 La NiZa. The work underlying this develops estimates of the economic consequences of these events on U.S. agriculture. Both phases result in economic damages -- a 1.5to1.5 to 1.7 billon loss for the El Nio and a 2.2to2.2 to 6.5 billion for La NiZa.. . The major conclusion is that ENSO events do impose costs on agriculture and consumers. 4 THE ECONOMIC CONSEQUENCES OF ENSO EVENTS: THE 1997-98 EL NIYYO AND THE 1998-99 LA NIYYA by Richard M. Adams, Chi-Chung Chen, Bruce A. McCarl, Rodney Weiher Climate is the primary determinant of agricultural productivity. An important aspect of climate in terms of human well being involves the effects on agriculture of seasonal and ..
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