561 research outputs found

    Health-Adjusted Life Expectancy among Canadian Adults with and without Hypertension

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    Hypertension can lead to cardiovascular diseases and other chronic conditions. While the impact of hypertension on premature death and life expectancy has been published, the impact on health-adjusted life expectancy has not, and constitutes the research objective of this study. Health-adjusted life expectancy (HALE) is the number of expected years of life equivalent to years lived in full health. Data were obtained from the Canadian Chronic Disease Surveillance System (mortality data 2004–2006) and the Canadian Community Health Survey (Health Utilities Index data 2000–2005) for people with and without hypertension. Life table analysis was applied to calculate life expectancy and health-adjusted life expectancy and their confidence intervals. Our results show that for Canadians 20 years of age, without hypertension, life expectancy is 65.4 years and 61.0 years, for females and males, respectively. HALE is 55.0 years and 52.8 years for the two sexes at age 20; and 24.7 years and 22.9 years at age 55. For Canadians with hypertension, HALE is only 48.9 years and 47.1 years for the two sexes at age 20; and 22.7 years and 20.2 years at age 55. Hypertension is associated with a significant loss in health-adjusted life expectancy compared to life expectancy

    TOWARDS A FARMER-GOVERNED APPROACH TO AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH FOR DEVELOPMENT: LESSONS FROM INTERNATIONAL EXPERIENCES WITH LOCAL INNOVATION SUPPORT FUNDS

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    International audienceNovel mechanisms for funding agricultural research for development (ARD) are emerging which strive to give smallholders a central role in deciding what types of innovation they want to explore and develop and how to do this. This paper reports on international experiences with one such mechanism, the Local Innovation Support Fund (LISF), which is being piloted in eight countries across Asia and Africa under the umbrella of the PROLINNOVA international partnership programme. The ways of setting up the LISFs vary greatly between countries, in response to country-specific conditions, experiences and opportunities, but all share certain structural elements: ensuring farmers' effective control over fund governance; making calls for proposals that farmers can easily understand and respond to; developing and applying effective screening criteria; and monitoring and evaluating systematically how the funds are used, the outcomes of the work and the impacts on farmers' lives, including their ability to influence ARD decision-making. After presenting the general rationale for the LISF pilot, the paper examines the diverse results obtained across countries in terms of structure and process of grant administration; number, size and types of grants; thematic foci; monitoring and impact assessment. Some critical issues are discussed: the importance of understanding concepts and its implications for LISF implementation, the purposes for which farmers use the funds, the pros and cons of supporting farmers' own experimentation versus farmer-led joint experimentation, and the perspectives for sustainability and scaling-up of the LISF approach within and beyond the eight countries in which it has been piloted

    A dose-ranging, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial of nisoldipine in effort angina: Duration and extent of antianginal effects

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    Maximal treadmill exercise testing at 1, 3 and 8 hours was used to assess the onset, duration and antianginal efficacy of the d1hydropyridine slow channel calciumblocking agent, nisoldipine, in an oral dose range of 5, 10 and 20 mg. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled design was used involving 12 patients with stable effort angina. Exercise tolerance was significantly increased 3 hours after each dose, when the maximal beneficial effect occurred. The improvement was observed as early as 1 hour after the 10 and 20 mg dose, and persisted for 8 hours after the 20 mg dose. At 3 hours, the onset of an exercise-induced ST segment depression of 0.1 mV or greater was increased by 62 (p < 0.05), 75 (p < 0.01) and 117 seconds (p < 0.01) with the 5,10 and 20 mg dose of nisoldipine, respectively, compared with placebo. Similarly, time to onset of angina was significantly increased. The sum of exerciseinduced ST segment depression at peak exercise was significantly decreased (p < 0.05) from 8.7 ± 2.3 to 6.7 ± 1.8 and 6.4 ± 2.0 mm, respectively, after the 10 and 20 mg dose of nisoldipine. The rate-pressure product was significantly greater with nisoldipine than with placebo at the onset of ischemia and at peak exercise (22.8 ± 1.1 versus 20 ± 1.4 × 103 U for the 20 mg dose; p ± 0.01).Thus, nisoldipine is an effective antianginal agent with a rapid onset of action that improves exercise tolerance, increases angina threshold and persists for at least 8 hours after oral dosing

    Mieux évaluer et accompagner l'innovation agricole en Afrique. Leçons d'une analyse transversale de 13 cas d'études

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    Cet article présente les résultats clés tirés de l'analyse transversale de 13 expériences d'innovation agricole menées au Bénin, au Kenya et en Afrique du Sud. L'évaluation a utilisé un cadre analytique commun inspiré de l'approche systèmes d'innovation pour comprendre comment l'innovation a évolué au fil du temps via les interactions entre différents acteurs et sous l'effet d'éléments déclencheurs et moteurs internes et externes. Menée de manière participative par des équipes mixtes de chercheurs, d'étudiants et d'acteurs locaux, elle s'est fondée sur des entretiens semi-structurés, des focus groupes et des ateliers multi-acteurs. Les 13 cas portent sur une diversité d'expériences en termes de domaines, types, échelles, durée, initiateurs de l'innovation et acteurs concernés. Les résultats montrent la multiplicité et le rôle des acteurs impliqués dans l'innovation, la nature des déclencheurs et moteurs de l'innovation. Ils montrent aussi l'importance de la prise en compte du temps long pour comprendre les processus d'innovation. Ils montrent enfin l'influence tant positive que parfois problématique des interventions externes sur les processus d'innovation, et en particulier les difficultés à institutionnaliser l'innovation au-delà des interventions ou à interagir avec les dynamiques locales d'innovation. L'article propose diverses voies pour améliorer tant l'évaluation que l'accompagnement des processus d'innovation. Cela concerne en particulier la conception et le financement des interventions externes. Cela concerne aussi l'acquisition des compétences et capacités indispensables à la mise en oeuvre dans la durée d'approches ouvertes et souples de conception, renforçant chaque fois que possible les initiatives existantes des acteurs locaux. (Résumé d'auteur

    Innovation in smallholder farming in Africa: recent advances and recommendations: Proceedings of the International Workshop on Agricultural Innovation Systems in Africa (AISA)

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    In the wake of a series of recent international events and initiatives focusing on understanding and fostering innovation1, there is growing awareness and interest in applying and making sense of the Agricultural Innovation Systems (AIS) concepts and perspectives and what they offer for understanding and supporting innovation systems, processes and networks. This has particular relevance for African agriculture as it faces several challenges, such as increasing and intensifying food production in a sustainable way and nourishing its fast-growing population, adapting to the consequences of climate change, and finding its rightful place in an increasingly global and complex international scene. Several initiatives and programmes seeking answers to these questions jointly organised a series of events during a Week on Agricultural Innovation in Africa (WAIA) held in Nairobi, Kenya, on 25–31 May 2013, of which the international workshop on Agricultural Innovation Systems in Africa (AISA) on 29–31 May was a major part. Another key event during this week, was the Eastern African Farmer Innovation Fair (EAFIF) held on 28–29 May, which was linked to AISA

    Radio Astronomy

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    Contains reports on five research projects.National Aeronautics and Space Administration (Grant NGL 22-009-016)National Science Foundation (Grant GP-14854)Joint Services Electronics Programs (U. S. Army, U. S. Navy, and U. S. Air Force) under Contract DA 28-043-AMC-02536(E)National Science Foundation (Grant GP-13056

    Radio Astronomy

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    Contains reports on six research projects.National Aeronautics and Space Administration (Grant NGL-22-009-016)National Science Foundation (Grant GP-8415
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