217 research outputs found

    Soft X-Ray Projection Lithography Using a 1-1 Ring Field Optical-System

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    An iridium-coated Offner 1:1 ring field camera has been used to carry out projection lithography using 42 nm light from an undulator in the vacuum ultra violet storage ring at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Near-diffraction-limited resolution has been obtained showing features as small as 0.2-mu-m within a 2 mm x 0.25 mm image field. Images of both transmission and reflection masks have been obtained. The impact of source coherence on imagery has been investigated. Hydrocarbon contamination problems experienced in this photon energy range have been investigated and possible solutions are suggested

    Free Radicals, Salicylic Acid and Mycotoxins in Asparagus After Inoculation with Fusarium proliferatum and F. oxysporum

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    Electron paramagnetic resonance was used to monitor free radicals and paramagnetic species like Fe, Mn, Cu generation, stability and status in Asparagus officinalis infected by common pathogens Fusarium proliferatum and F. oxysporum. Occurrence of F. proliferatum and F. oxysporum, level of free radicals and other paramagnetic species, as well as salicylic acid and mycotoxins content in roots and stems of seedlings were estimated on the second and fourth week after inoculation. In the first term free and total salicylic acid contents were related to free radicals level in stem (P = 0.010 and P = 0.033, respectively). Concentration of Fe3+ ions in porphyrin complexes (g = 2.3, g = 2.9) was related to the species of pathogen. There was no significant difference between Mn2+ concentrations in stem samples; however, the level of free radicals in samples inoculated with F. proliferatum was significantly higher when compared to F. oxysporum

    Recommendations for laboratory workflow that better support centralised amalgamation of genomic variant data: findings from CanVIG-UK national molecular laboratory survey.

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    BACKGROUND: National and international amalgamation of genomic data offers opportunity for research and audit, including analyses enabling improved classification of variants of uncertain significance. Review of individual-level data from National Health Service (NHS) testing of cancer susceptibility genes (2002-2023) submitted to the National Disease Registration Service revealed heterogeneity across participating laboratories regarding (1) the structure, quality and completeness of submitted data, and (2) the ease with which that data could be assembled locally for submission. METHODS: In May 2023, we undertook a closed online survey of 51 clinical scientists who provided consensus responses representing all 17 of 17 NHS molecular genetic laboratories in England and Wales which undertake NHS diagnostic analyses of cancer susceptibility genes. The survey included 18 questions relating to 'next-generation sequencing workflow' (11), 'variant classification' (3) and 'phenotypical context' (4). RESULTS: Widely differing processes were reported for transfer of variant data into their local LIMS (Laboratory Information Management System), for the formatting in which the variants are stored in the LIMS and which classes of variants are retained in the local LIMS. Differing local provisions and workflow for variant classifications were also reported, including the resources provided and the mechanisms by which classifications are stored. CONCLUSION: The survey responses illustrate heterogeneous laboratory workflow for preparation of genomic variant data from local LIMS for centralised submission. Workflow is often labour-intensive and inefficient, involving multiple manual steps which introduce opportunities for error. These survey findings and adoption of the concomitant recommendations may support improvement in laboratory dataflows, better facilitating submission of data for central amalgamation

    XMeis3 Is Necessary for Mesodermal Hox Gene Expression and Function

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    Hox transcription factors provide positional information during patterning of the anteroposterior axis. Hox transcription factors can co-operatively bind with PBC-class co-factors, enhancing specificity and affinity for their appropriate binding sites. The nuclear localisation of these co-factors is regulated by the Meis-class of homeodomain proteins. During development of the zebrafish hindbrain, Meis3 has previously been shown to synergise with Hoxb1 in the autoregulation of Hoxb1. In Xenopus XMeis3 posteriorises the embryo upon ectopic expression. Recently, an early temporally collinear expression sequence of Hox genes was detected in Xenopus gastrula mesoderm (see intro. P3). There is evidence that this sequence sets up the embryo's later axial Hox expression pattern by time-space translation. We investigated whether XMeis3 is involved in regulation of this early mesodermal Hox gene expression. Here, we present evidence that XMeis3 is necessary for expression of Hoxd1, Hoxb4 and Hoxc6 in mesoderm during gastrulation. In addition, we show that XMeis3 function is necessary for the progression of gastrulation. Finally, we present evidence for synergy between XMeis3 and Hoxd1 in Hoxd1 autoregulation in mesoderm during gastrulation

    Risk of high blood pressure in salt workers working near salt milling plants: A cross-sectional and interventional study

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    BACKGROUND: Workers working close to salt milling plants may inhale salt particles floating in the air, leading to a rise in plasma sodium, which, in turn, may increase the blood pressure and the risk of hypertension. METHODS: To test the above hypothesis, occupational health check-up camps were organized near salt manufacturing units and all workers were invited for a free health examination. The workers who worked with dry salt in the vicinity of salt milling plants were defined as "non-brine workers," while those working in brine pans located far away from milling plants were defined as "brine workers." Blood pressure (BP) was measured during each clinical examination. In all, 474 non-brine workers and 284 brine workers were studied. RESULTS: Mean systolic blood pressure of non-brine workers (122.1 ± 13.3 mm Hg) was significantly higher than that of brine workers (118.8 ± 12.8 mm Hg, p < 0.01). Mean diastolic blood pressure of non-brine workers (71.5 ± 10.4 mm Hg) was significantly higher than that of brine workers (69.7 ± 9.4 mm Hg, p = 0.02). The prevalence of hypertension was significantly higher in non-brine workers (12.2%) than in brine workers (7.0%, p = 0.02). Nineteen salt workers were monitored while they used face masks and spectacles, for six days. Systolic, as well as diastolic, blood pressure of these workers began declining on the third day and continued to decline on the fourth day, but remained stationary up to the sixth day. The concentration of salt particles in the breathing zone of these workers was 376 mg/m(3 )air. CONCLUSION: Inhalation of salt particles in non-brine workers may be an occupational cause of increased blood pressure

    Activation of Host Translational Control Pathways by a Viral Developmental Switch

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    In response to numerous signals, latent herpesvirus genomes abruptly switch their developmental program, aborting stable host–cell colonization in favor of productive viral replication that ultimately destroys the cell. To achieve a rapid gene expression transition, newly minted capped, polyadenylated viral mRNAs must engage and reprogram the cellular translational apparatus. While transcriptional responses of viral genomes undergoing lytic reactivation have been amply documented, roles for cellular translational control pathways in enabling the latent-lytic switch have not been described. Using PEL-derived B-cells naturally infected with KSHV as a model, we define efficient reactivation conditions and demonstrate that reactivation substantially changes the protein synthesis profile. New polypeptide synthesis correlates with 4E-BP1 translational repressor inactivation, nuclear PABP accumulation, eIF4F assembly, and phosphorylation of the cap-binding protein eIF4E by Mnk1. Significantly, inhibiting Mnk1 reduces accumulation of the critical viral transactivator RTA through a post-transcriptional mechanism, limiting downstream lytic protein production, and impairs reactivation efficiency. Thus, herpesvirus reactivation from latency activates the host cap-dependent translation machinery, illustrating the importance of translational regulation in implementing new developmental instructions that drastically alter cell fate

    Cytoplasmic Prep1 Interacts with 4EHP Inhibiting Hoxb4 Translation

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    embryo development. Interestingly, Prep1 contains a putative binding motif for 4EHP, which may reflect a novel unknown function. development effect. mRNA to the 5′ cap structure. This is the first demonstration that a mammalian homeodomain transcription factor regulates translation, and that this function can be possibly essential for the development of female germ cells and involved in mammalian zygote development

    Heterochronic Shift in Hox-Mediated Activation of Sonic hedgehog Leads to Morphological Changes during Fin Development

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    We explored the molecular mechanisms of morphological transformations of vertebrate paired fin/limb evolution by comparative gene expression profiling and functional analyses. In this study, we focused on the temporal differences of the onset of Sonic hedgehog (Shh) expression in paired appendages among different vertebrates. In limb buds of chick and mouse, Shh expression is activated as soon as there is a morphological bud, concomitant with Hoxd10 expression. In dogfish (Scyliorhinus canicula), however, we found that Shh was transcribed late in fin development, concomitant with Hoxd13 expression. We utilized zebrafish as a model to determine whether quantitative changes in hox expression alter the timing of shh expression in pectoral fins of zebrafish embryos. We found that the temporal shift of Shh activity altered the size of endoskeletal elements in paired fins of zebrafish and dogfish. Thus, a threshold level of hox expression determines the onset of shh expression, and the subsequent heterochronic shift of Shh activity can affect the size of the fin endoskeleton. This process may have facilitated major morphological changes in paired appendages during vertebrate limb evolution

    Hoxb1 Controls Anteroposterior Identity of Vestibular Projection Neurons

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    The vestibular nuclear complex (VNC) consists of a collection of sensory relay nuclei that integrates and relays information essential for coordination of eye movements, balance, and posture. Spanning the majority of the hindbrain alar plate, the rhombomere (r) origin and projection pattern of the VNC have been characterized in descriptive works using neuroanatomical tracing. However, neither the molecular identity nor developmental regulation of individual nucleus of the VNC has been determined. To begin to address this issue, we found that Hoxb1 is required for the anterior-posterior (AP) identity of precursors that contribute to the lateral vestibular nucleus (LVN). Using a gene-targeted Hoxb1-GFP reporter in the mouse, we show that the LVN precursors originate exclusively from r4 and project to the spinal cord in the stereotypic pattern of the lateral vestibulospinal tract that provides input into spinal motoneurons driving extensor muscles of the limb. The r4-derived LVN precursors express the transcription factors Phox2a and Lbx1, and the glutamatergic marker Vglut2, which together defines them as dB2 neurons. Loss of Hoxb1 function does not alter the glutamatergic phenotype of dB2 neurons, but alters their stereotyped spinal cord projection. Moreover, at the expense of Phox2a, the glutamatergic determinants Lmx1b and Tlx3 were ectopically expressed by dB2 neurons. Our study suggests that the Hox genes determine the AP identity and diversity of vestibular precursors, including their output target, by coordinating the expression of neurotransmitter determinant and target selection properties along the AP axis
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