90 research outputs found

    Spelling dyslexia:a defict of the visual word form

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    A patient with spelling dyslexia read both words and text accurately but slowly and laboriously letter by letter. Her performance on a test of lexical decision was slow. She had great difficulty in detecting a 'rogue' letter attached to the beginning or end of a word--for example, ksong--or in parsing two unspaced words, such as applepeach. By contrast she was immune to the effects of interpolating extraneous coloured letters in a word, a manipulation that affects normal readers. Therefore it is argued that this patient had damage to an early stage in the reading process, to the visual word form itself

    Procedural and declarative knowledge: an evolutionary perspective

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    It appears that there are resemblances in the organization of memory and the visual system, although the functions of these faculties differ considerably. In this article, the principles behind this organization are discussed. One important principle regards the distinction between declarative and procedural knowledge, between knowing that and knowing how. Declarative knowledge is considered here not as an alternative kind of knowledge, as is usually the case in theories of memory, but as part of procedural knowledge. In our view this leads to another approach with respect to the distinction. Declarative knowledge has occupied more attention in (cognitive) psychological research than can be justified on the basis of the importance of procedural knowledge for behavior. We also discuss the question whether there are other brain faculties that reflect the same organizational characteristics. We conclude with some speculations about the consequent role of consciousness in such a tentative model

    Reconsidering the Gospel According to Group Studies: A Neuropsychological Case Study Approach to Schizophrenia

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    Original article can be found at: http://www.informaworld.com/smpp/title~content=t713659088 Copyright Informa / Taylor and Francis GroupIndividual patterns of performance on tests of: visual perception, language, executive function, memory, and face-processing, were examined in 10 schizophrenic patients who were preselected for having current WAIS IQ and premorbid NART IQ scores in the normal range. Although the patients showed some heterogeneity in the type, pervasiveness, and degree of cognitive impairment, a majority had severely impaired verbal recall and familiar face-naming. This contrasted with the low incidence and severity of impairment on tests of executive function, visual recall, recognition memory, naming, and unfamiliar faceprocessing. Contrasts between individual patients indicated that verbal recall and executive performance are independent in some patients and that memory appears to be the core deficit. The profile of impaired and preserved cognitive function revealed some important dissimilarities from the pattern that has emerged from group studies. Finally, face-naming correlated highly with the learning of unrelated paired associates, confirming a similarity with neurological patients who have person name anomia. It is suggested that both deficits might reflect a problem with learning ''meaninglessness'' associations; this interpretation is discussed with reference to a deficit at the level of the Supervisory Attentional System (Shallice, 1988).Peer reviewe
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