55,817 research outputs found

    Differential Nitrous oxide emission and microbiota succession in constructed wetlands induced by nitrogen forms

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    Nitrous oxide (N2O) emission during the sewage treatment process is a serious environmental issue that requires attention. However, the N2O emission in constructed wetlands (CWs) as affected by different nitrogen forms in influents remain largely unknown. This study investigated the N2O emission profiles driven by microorganisms in CWs when exposed to two typical nitrogen sources (NH4+-N or NO3–-N) along with different carbon source supply (COD/N ratios: 3, 6, and 9). The results showed that CWs receiving NO3–-N caused a slight increase in total nitrogen removal (by up to 11.8 %). This increase was accomplished by an enrichment of key bacteria groups, including denitrifiers, dissimilatory nitrate reducers, and assimilatory nitrate reducers, which enhanced the stability of microbial interaction. Additionally, it led to a greater abundance of denitrification genes (e.g., nirK, norB, norC, and nosZ) as inferred from the database. Consequently, this led to a gradual increase in N2O emission from 66.51 to 486.77 ug-N/(m2·h) as the COD/N ratio increased in CWs. Conversely, in CWs receiving NH4+-N, an increasing influent COD/N ratio had a negative impact on nitrogen biotransformation. This resulted in fluctuating trend of N2O emissions, which decreased initially, followed by an increase at later stage (with values of 122.87, 44.00, and 148.59 ug-N/(m2·h)). Furthermore, NH4+-N in the aquatic improved the nitrogen uptake by plants and promoted the production of more root exudates. As a result, it adjusted the nitrogen-transforming function, ultimately reducing N2O emissions in CWs. This study highlights the divergence in microbiota succession and nitrogen transformation in CWs induced by nitrogen form and COD/N ratio, contributing to a better understanding of the microbial mechanisms of N2O emission in CWs with NH4+-N or NO3–-N at different COD/N ratios

    Sesquiterpenes from <i>Wikstroemia lungtzeensis</i> with anti-neuroinflammatory effects

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    An anti-neuroinflammatory activities-guided phytochemical research of Wikstroemia lungtzeensis was performed for the first time. Three undescribed carotane-type sesquiterpenes, excoecafolinols C-E (1–3), and nine known sesquiterpene derivatives were isolated from the effective ethyl acetate extract of W. lungtzeensis. Their structures were determined based on multiple spectroscopic techniques and electronic circular dichroism (ECD) spectra. Furthermore, the anti-neuroinflammatory activities of the identified compounds were evaluated in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated BV-2 cells. Among them, six components (1, 2, 4, 7, 11, 12) exhibited significant inhibitory effects on nitric oxide (NO) production, with IC50 values ranging from 10.48 to 49.41 ΌM (positive control minocycline, IC50 53.20 ΌM). Carotane-type sesquiterpenes (1, 2, 4) with high content and significant inhibitory effects, are considered to be major active ingredients of W. lungtzeensis, which might serve as potential therapeutic agents for neurodegenerative diseases.</p

    DataSheet_1_COPD and T2DM: a Mendelian randomization study.docx

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    IntroductionType 2 diabetes (T2DM) stands as a global chronic illness, exerting a profound impact on health due to its complications and generating a significant economic burden. Recently, observational studies have pointed toward a potential link between Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) and T2DM. To elucidate this causal connection, we employed the Mendelian randomization analysis.MethodOur study involved a two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) analysis on COPD and T2DM. Additionally, tests for heterogeneity and horizontal pleiotropy were performed.ResultsFor the MR analysis, 26 independent single nucleotides polymorphisms (SNPs) with strong associations to COPD were chosen as instrumental variables. Our findings suggest a pronounced causal relationship between COPD and T2DM. Specifically, COPD emerges as a risk factor for T2DM, with an odds ratio (OR) of 1.06 and a 95% confidence interval ranging from 1.01 to 1.11 (P = 0.006). Notably, all results were devoid of any heterogeneity or pleiotropy.ConclusionThe MR analysis underscores a significant causal relationship between COPD and T2DM, highlighting COPD as a prominent risk factor for T2DM.</p

    Extracting the speed of sound in the strongly interacting matter created in ultrarelativistic lead-lead collisions at the LHC

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    International audienceUltrarelativistic nuclear collisions create a strongly interacting state of hot and dense quark-gluon matter that exhibits a remarkable collective flow behavior with minimal viscous dissipation. To gain deeper insights into its intrinsic nature and fundamental degrees of freedom, we extracted the speed of sound in this medium created using lead-lead (PbPb) collisions at a center-of-mass energy per nucleon pair of 5.02 TeV. The data were recorded by the CMS experiment at the CERN LHC and correspond to an integrated luminosity of 0.607 nb−1^{-1}. The measurement is performed by studying the multiplicity dependence of the average transverse momentum of charged particles emitted in head-on PbPb collisions. Our findings reveal that the speed of sound in this matter is nearly half the speed of light, with a squared value of 0.241 ±\pm 0.002 (stat) ±\pm 0.016 (syst) in natural units. The effective medium temperature, estimated using the mean transverse momentum, is 219 ±\pm 8 (syst) MeV. The measured squared speed of sound at this temperature aligns precisely with predictions from lattice quantum chromodynamic (QCD) calculations. This result provides a stringent constraint on the equation of state of the created medium and direct evidence for a deconfined QCD phase being attained in relativistic nuclear collisions

    Multiplicity dependence of σψ(2S)/σJ/ψ\sigma_{\psi(2S)}/\sigma_{J/\psi} in pppp collisions at s=13\sqrt{s}=13 TeV

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    International audienceThe ratio of production cross-sections of ψ(2S)\psi(2S) over J/ψJ/\psi mesons as a function of charged-particle multiplicity in proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy s=13\sqrt{s}=13 TeV is measured with a data sample collected by the LHCb detector, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 658 pb−1^{-1}. The ratio is measured for both prompt and non-prompt ψ(2S)\psi(2S) and J/ψJ/\psi mesons. When there is an overlap between the rapidity ranges over which multiplicity and charmonia production are measured, a multiplicity-dependent modification of the ratio is observed for prompt mesons. No significant multiplicity dependence is found when the ranges do not overlap. For non-prompt production, the ψ(2S)−to−J/ψ\psi(2S)-to-J/\psi production ratio is roughly independent of multiplicity irrespective of the rapidity range over which the multiplicity is measured. The results are compared to predictions of the co-mover model and agree well except in the low multiplicity region. The ratio of production cross-sections of ψ(2S)\psi(2S) over J/ψJ/\psi mesons are cross-checked with other measurements in di-lepton channels and found to be compatible

    CEPC Technical Design Report -- Accelerator