929 research outputs found

    Women and Employment in Ireland: Results of a National Survey. General Research Series Paper No. 69, April 1973

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    THIS Report makes available the results of a national survey on several topics relating to the employment of women in the Republic of Ireland. The survey was conducted between March and May 197I. The costs of the fieldwork and data processing were met by a grant from the Department of Labour. The project was carried out under the general guidance of a committee which included members of the Departments of Labour and Finance. As emphasised, however, in the Acknowledgements, responsibility for the views expressed rests solely with the authors of the Report

    Alphabetical Voting: A Study of the 1973 General Election in the Republic of Ireland. General Research Series Paper No. 71, June 1973

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    IT is popularly believed that the requirement in Irish elections that candidates’ names be printed in alphabetical order on the ballot paper results in a bias against those whose surnames begin with the later letters of the alphabet. One journalist recently went so far as to assert that "the spelling of a candidate’s name has in many cases been almost as important as his politics in ensuring success at the polls;’? On the other hand, the importance and even the existence of such a bias has been questioned. The issue was debated at some length in D~iil t~ireann in connection’ with the Electoral Bill, 1962, when an Amendment to randomise the ballot paper was withdrawn after a discussion in the course of which little empirical evidence was advanced.~ One authority on electoral systems concluded that "in the Irish constituencies the initial letter of a candidate’s name has . . . only a trifling effect on his chance of election".3 It is also notable that political analysts very rarely mention alphabetical bias in any detailed discussion of an election. The purpose of the present study is to assess whether an important alphabetical bias can be shown to exist and, if so, to explore the exact mechanisms by which it operates

    A scalable, fully automated process for construction of sequence-ready human exome targeted capture libraries

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    Genome targeting methods enable cost-effective capture of specific subsets of the genome for sequencing. We present here an automated, highly scalable method for carrying out the Solution Hybrid Selection capture approach that provides a dramatic increase in scale and throughput of sequence-ready libraries produced. Significant process improvements and a series of in-process quality control checkpoints are also added. These process improvements can also be used in a manual version of the protocol

    Calcitonin gene-related peptide-1 (CGRP-1) is a potent regulator of glycogen metabolism in rat skeletal muscle

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    AbstractWe investigated the effects of CGRP on glucose metabolism in intact rat skeletal muscle preparations that are largely composed of either type I (soleus) or II fibres (e.g. extensor digitorum longus (EDL) or epitrochlearis muscles). CGRP-1 inhibited insulin-stimulated glycogen synthesis in both soleus and EDL muscle preparations. Rat CGRP-1 was a potent stimulator of glycogenolysis only in muscles composed of type II fibres, which depend on high rates of glycogenolysis to produce high power outputs. These results may provide the basis for understanding how CGRP regulate glycogenolysis in type II fibres in vivo

    Gut microbiome-mediated modulation of hepatic cytochrome P450 and P-glycoprotein: impact of butyrate and fructo-oligosaccharide-inulin

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    Objectives: Our objective was to demonstrate microbial regulation of hepatic genes implicated in drug metabolism and transport using germ‐free (GF) mice and to explore the impact of a microbial metabolite, butyrate, and a prebiotic dietary intervention on hepatic gene expression in mice. Methods: Using reverse‐transcriptase PCR, we investigated cytochrome P450 (CYP) and multidrug‐resistance protein 1 (MDR1) expression in conventional, GF and colonised GF mice. To investigate the effects of butyrate, sodium butyrate (3 g/l) was administered for 21 days to conventional or GF mice. In the prebiotic study, young adult and middle‐aged mice received diet enriched with 10% fructo‐oligosaccharide (FOS)‐inulin for 14 weeks. Key findings: Colonisation of GF animals normalised expression of Cyp3a11 and Mdr1b to conventional levels. Butyrate upregulated Cyp2b10 in conventional mice (P < 0.05) but overall did not induce widespread changes in hepatic genes. FOS‐inulin increased Cyp3a13 expression and had the opposite effect on Mdr1a expression in young adult mice (P < 0.05). Age, on the other hand, influenced the prebiotic effect on Cyp2a4 expression (P < 0.01). Conclusion: The expression of hepatic genes implicated in drug metabolism and transport displays sensitivity to the microbiome, microbiome‐derived metabolites and a microbial‐targeted intervention. Our study may provide the impetus to explore microbiota‐targeted interventions in normalising host metabolic activity and reducing inter‐individual variability in drug pharmacokinetics

    Regional mechanical and biochemical properties of the porcine cortical meninges

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    peer-reviewedThe meninges are pivotal in protecting the brain against traumatic brain injury (TBI), an ongoing issue in most mainstream sports. Improved understanding of TBI biomechanics and pathophysiology is desirable to improve preventative measures, such as protective helmets, and advance our TBI diagnostic/prognostic capabilities. This study mechanically characterised the porcine meninges by performing uniaxial tensile testing on the dura mater (DM) tissue adjacent to the frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital lobes of the cerebellum and superior sagittal sinus region of the DM. Mechanical characterisation revealed a significantly higher elastic modulus for the superior sagittal sinus region when compared to other regions in the DM. The superior sagittal sinus and parietal regions of the DM also displayed local mechanical anisotropy. Further, fatigue was noted in the DM following ten preconditioning cycles, which could have important implications in the context of repetitive TBI. To further understand differences in regional mechanical properties, regional variations in protein content (collagen I, collagen III, fibronectin and elastin) were examined by immunoblot analysis. The superior sagittal sinus was found to have significantly higher collagen I, elastin, and fibronectin content. The frontal region was also identified to have significantly higher collagen I and fibronectin content while the temporal region had increased elastin and fibronectin content. Regional differences in the mechanical and biochemical properties along with regional tissue thickness differences within the DM reveal that the tissue is a non-homogeneous structure. In particular, the potentially influential role of the superior sagittal sinus in TBI biomechanics warrants further investigation

    The state of the Martian climate

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    60°N was +2.0°C, relative to the 1981–2010 average value (Fig. 5.1). This marks a new high for the record. The average annual surface air temperature (SAT) anomaly for 2016 for land stations north of starting in 1900, and is a significant increase over the previous highest value of +1.2°C, which was observed in 2007, 2011, and 2015. Average global annual temperatures also showed record values in 2015 and 2016. Currently, the Arctic is warming at more than twice the rate of lower latitudes