156 research outputs found

    Effects of a multicomponent physical activity programme, Mobility-Fit, compared with a standard care lower limb strengthening programme, to promote safe mobility among older adults in care facilities: protocol for a cluster randomised controlled trial

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    Introduction Upper limb and core strength training is essential for older adults to safely perform daily activities. However, existing exercise programmes mainly focus on lower limb strength and are not designed or delivered to suit people with different functional capacities. This study describes the design of a two-arm cluster randomised controlled trial to examine the effects of a multicomponent physical activity (PA) programme, Mobility-Fit, on mobility and frailty in older adults living in care facilities.Methods and analysis 160 older adults from 20 care facilities in Hong Kong will be recruited and randomised by care facilities (1:1) to an intervention or a control group. Participants in the intervention group will attend the Mobility-Fit programme, led by facility-based instructors, three times per week, 45 min per session, for 12 weeks, while the control group will participate in a standard care lower limb strengthening programme offered by the care facility. Participants will then be followed up for 9 months. Mobility-Fit comprises agility, postural coordination, balance and strength training, with suitable dosage based on participant’s baseline physical and cognitive function. The primary outcomes encompass upper and lower limb strength, trunk stability, reaction time, mobility function and fall efficacy. Secondary outcomes comprise daily PA level and performance, frailty, cognitive function and quality of life. A repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) and generalised estimating equation (GEE) will be used to examine changes in outcomes over time and between groups. Data will be analysed following the intention-to-treat principles. We will also evaluate programme implementation and health economics throughout the follow-up period.Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval was acquired in November 2022 from the Joint CUHK-NTEC Clinical Research Ethics Committee in Hong Kong (CREC-2022-459). Informed consent will be obtained from participants. The results of the study will be disseminated through peer-reviewed articles, conference presentations and social media.Trial registration number ChiCTR2300072709

    Effect of eccentric isokinetic exercise on muscle strength and functional recovery after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction

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    Background: Previous studies have shown isokinetic exercise forms an important part in reconditioning the patients after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) in regaining muscle strength and knee function. Although eccentric isokinetic training has been shown to enhance quadriceps muscle strength, the application toward benefiting patients after ACLR remains controversial. The present study aims to investigate the benefits of eccentric over concentric isokinetic exercises on knee muscle strength and its value in later stage of rehabilitation, including the return-to-sport. Methods: Thirty-six patients who had undergone ACLR for 4-to-6 months were assigned to receive either eccentric or concentric isokinetic training weekly for six weeks on top of their standardized post-operative exercise programme. The assessments include isokinetic test on the peak torques of quadriceps and hamstrings, single-leg hop test and ability to return-to-sport. Results: Both groups demonstrated significant gains on peak torques in quadriceps and hamstrings after training. At post-intervention, the peak torques for both quadriceps (p = 0.005) and hamstrings (p = 0.017) of the ACL-reconstructed limb from eccentric training were significantly higher than concentric training. The significant improvement was similarly demonstrated in the limb symmetry index (LSI) in hamstrings (p = 0.016) of the ACL-reconstructed limb from eccentric training. Moreover, eccentric group performed significantly better in single-leg hop tests (p = 0.042). Most importantly, eccentric group have higher percentages of return-to-sport (55.6 %) than concentric group (27.8 %). Conclusion: A 6-week course of eccentric isokinetic training was more effective than concentric isokinetic training in increasing quadriceps and hamstrings strength in terms of peak torques. Importantly, the better functional performance after the eccentric isokinetic exercise account for higher return-to-sport ratio

    Willingness to Purchase Hypothetical Private Long-Term Care Insurance Plans in a Super-ageing Society: Evidence from Hong Kong

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    10.1080/08959420.2023.2182084Journal of Aging & Social Policy356780-80

    Mitochondrial diseases in Hong Kong: prevalence, clinical characteristics and genetic landscape

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    Abstract Objective To determine the prevalence of mitochondrial diseases (MD) in Hong Kong (HK) and to evaluate the clinical characteristics and genetic landscape of MD patients in the region. Methods This study retrospectively reviewed the phenotypic and molecular characteristics of MD patients from participating public hospitals in HK between January 1985 to October 2020. Molecularly and/or enzymatically confirmed MD cases of any age were recruited via the Clinical Analysis and Reporting System (CDARS) using relevant keywords and/or International Classification of Disease (ICD) codes under the HK Hospital Authority or through the personal recollection of treating clinicians among the investigators. Results A total of 119 MD patients were recruited and analyzed in the study. The point prevalence of MD in HK was 1.02 in 100,000 people (95% confidence interval 0.81–1.28 in 100,000). 110 patients had molecularly proven MD and the other nine were diagnosed by OXPHOS enzymology analysis or mitochondrial DNA depletion analysis with unknown molecular basis. Pathogenic variants in the mitochondrial genome (72 patients) were more prevalent than those in the nuclear genome (38 patients) in our cohort. The most commonly involved organ system at disease onset was the neurological system, in which developmental delay, seizures or epilepsy, and stroke-like episodes were the most frequently reported presentations. The mortality rate in our cohort was 37%. Conclusion This study is a territory-wide overview of the clinical and genetic characteristics of MD patients in a Chinese population, providing the first available prevalence rate of MD in Hong Kong. The findings of this study aim to facilitate future in-depth evaluation of MD and lay the foundation to establish a local MD registry

    Reducing the environmental impact of surgery on a global scale: systematic review and co-prioritization with healthcare workers in 132 countries

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    Abstract Background Healthcare cannot achieve net-zero carbon without addressing operating theatres. The aim of this study was to prioritize feasible interventions to reduce the environmental impact of operating theatres. Methods This study adopted a four-phase Delphi consensus co-prioritization methodology. In phase 1, a systematic review of published interventions and global consultation of perioperative healthcare professionals were used to longlist interventions. In phase 2, iterative thematic analysis consolidated comparable interventions into a shortlist. In phase 3, the shortlist was co-prioritized based on patient and clinician views on acceptability, feasibility, and safety. In phase 4, ranked lists of interventions were presented by their relevance to high-income countries and low–middle-income countries. Results In phase 1, 43 interventions were identified, which had low uptake in practice according to 3042 professionals globally. In phase 2, a shortlist of 15 intervention domains was generated. In phase 3, interventions were deemed acceptable for more than 90 per cent of patients except for reducing general anaesthesia (84 per cent) and re-sterilization of ‘single-use’ consumables (86 per cent). In phase 4, the top three shortlisted interventions for high-income countries were: introducing recycling; reducing use of anaesthetic gases; and appropriate clinical waste processing. In phase 4, the top three shortlisted interventions for low–middle-income countries were: introducing reusable surgical devices; reducing use of consumables; and reducing the use of general anaesthesia. Conclusion This is a step toward environmentally sustainable operating environments with actionable interventions applicable to both high– and low–middle–income countries

    Associations of timing of physical activity with all-cause and cause-specific mortality in a prospective cohort study

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    There is a growing interest in the role of timing of daily behaviors in improving health. However, little is known about the optimal timing of physical activity to maximize health benefits. We perform a cohort study of 92,139 UK Biobank participants with valid accelerometer data and all-cause and cause-specific mortality outcomes, comprising over 7 years of median follow-up (638,825 person-years). Moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA) at any time of day is associated with lower risks for all-cause, cardiovascular disease, and cancer mortality. In addition, compared with morning group (>50% of daily MVPA during 05:00-11:00), midday-afternoon (11:00-17:00) and mixed MVPA timing groups, but not evening group (17:00-24:00), have lower risks of all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality. These protective associations are more pronounced among the elderly, males, less physically active participants, or those with preexisting cardiovascular diseases. Here, we show that MVPA timing may have the potential to improve public health

    An Exploratory Study of Refining TNM-8 M1 Categories and Prognostic Subgroups Using Plasma EBV DNA for Previously Untreated De Novo Metastatic Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

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    (1) Background: NPC patients with de novo distant metastasis appears to be a heterogeneous group who demonstrate a wide range of survival, as suggested by growing evidence. Nevertheless, the current 8th edition of TNM staging (TNM-8) grouping all these patients into the M1 category is not able to identify their survival differences. We sought to identify any anatomic and non-anatomic subgroups in this study. (2) Methods: Sixty-nine patients with treatment-naive de novo M1 NPC (training cohort) were prospectively recruited from 2007 to 2018. We performed univariable and multivariable analyses (UVA and MVA) to explore anatomic distant metastasis factors, which were significantly prognostic of overall survival (OS). Recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) with the incorporation of significant factors from MVA was then performed to derive a new set of RPA stage groups with OS segregation (Set 1 Anatomic-RPA stage groups); another run of MVA was performed with the addition of pre-treatment plasma EBV DNA. A second-round RPA with significant prognostic factors of OS identified in this round of MVA was performed again to derive another set of stage groups (Set 2 Prognostic-RPA stage groups). Both sets were then validated externally with an independent validation cohort of 67 patients with distant relapses of their initially non-metastatic NPC (rM1) after radical treatment. The performance of models in survival segregation was evaluated by the Akaike information criterion (AIC) and concordance index (C-index) under 1000 bootstrapping samples for the validation cohort; (3) Results: The 3-year OS and median follow-up in the training cohort were 36.0% and 17.8 months, respectively. Co-existence of liver-bone metastases was the only significant prognostic factor of OS in the first round UVA and MVA. Set 1 RPA based on anatomic factors that subdivide the M1 category into two groups: M1a (absence of co-existing liver-bone metastases; median OS 28.1 months) and M1b (co-existing liver-bone metastases; median OS 19.2 months, p = 0.023). When pre-treatment plasma EBV DNA was also added, it became the only significant prognostic factor in UVA (p = 0.001) and MVA (p = 0.015), while co-existing liver-bone metastases was only significant in UVA. Set 2 RPA with the incorporation of pre-treatment plasma EBV DNA yielded good segregation (M1a: EBV DNA ≤ 2500 copies/mL and M1b: EBV DNA > 2500 copies/mL; median OS 44.2 and 19.7 months, respectively, p p p < 0.001); (4) Conclusions: Our Anatomic-RPA stage groups yielded good segregation for de novo M1 NPC, and prognostication was further improved by incorporating plasma EBV DNA. These new RPA stage groups for M1 NPC can be applied to countries/regions regardless of whether reliable and sensitive plasma EBV DNA assays are available or not

    An Exploratory Study of Refining TNM-8 M1 Categories and Prognostic Subgroups Using Plasma EBV DNA for Previously Untreated De Novo Metastatic Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

    No full text
    (1) Background: NPC patients with de novo distant metastasis appears to be a heterogeneous group who demonstrate a wide range of survival, as suggested by growing evidence. Nevertheless, the current 8th edition of TNM staging (TNM-8) grouping all these patients into the M1 category is not able to identify their survival differences. We sought to identify any anatomic and non-anatomic subgroups in this study. (2) Methods: Sixty-nine patients with treatment-naive de novo M1 NPC (training cohort) were prospectively recruited from 2007 to 2018. We performed univariable and multivariable analyses (UVA and MVA) to explore anatomic distant metastasis factors, which were significantly prognostic of overall survival (OS). Recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) with the incorporation of significant factors from MVA was then performed to derive a new set of RPA stage groups with OS segregation (Set 1 Anatomic-RPA stage groups); another run of MVA was performed with the addition of pre-treatment plasma EBV DNA. A second-round RPA with significant prognostic factors of OS identified in this round of MVA was performed again to derive another set of stage groups (Set 2 Prognostic-RPA stage groups). Both sets were then validated externally with an independent validation cohort of 67 patients with distant relapses of their initially non-metastatic NPC (rM1) after radical treatment. The performance of models in survival segregation was evaluated by the Akaike information criterion (AIC) and concordance index (C-index) under 1000 bootstrapping samples for the validation cohort; (3) Results: The 3-year OS and median follow-up in the training cohort were 36.0% and 17.8 months, respectively. Co-existence of liver-bone metastases was the only significant prognostic factor of OS in the first round UVA and MVA. Set 1 RPA based on anatomic factors that subdivide the M1 category into two groups: M1a (absence of co-existing liver-bone metastases; median OS 28.1 months) and M1b (co-existing liver-bone metastases; median OS 19.2 months, p = 0.023). When pre-treatment plasma EBV DNA was also added, it became the only significant prognostic factor in UVA (p = 0.001) and MVA (p = 0.015), while co-existing liver-bone metastases was only significant in UVA. Set 2 RPA with the incorporation of pre-treatment plasma EBV DNA yielded good segregation (M1a: EBV DNA &le; 2500 copies/mL and M1b: EBV DNA &gt; 2500 copies/mL; median OS 44.2 and 19.7 months, respectively, p &lt; 0.001). Set 2 Prognostic-RPA groups (AIC: 228.1 [95% CI: 194.8&ndash;251.8] is superior to Set 1 Anatomic-RPA groups (AIC: 278.5 [254.6&ndash;301.2]) in the OS prediction (p &lt; 0.001). Set 2 RPA groups (C-index 0.59 [95% CI: 0.54&ndash;0.67]) also performed better prediction agreement in the validation cohort (vs. Set 1: C-index 0.47 [95% CI: 0.41&ndash;0.53]) (p &lt; 0.001); (4) Conclusions: Our Anatomic-RPA stage groups yielded good segregation for de novo M1 NPC, and prognostication was further improved by incorporating plasma EBV DNA. These new RPA stage groups for M1 NPC can be applied to countries/regions regardless of whether reliable and sensitive plasma EBV DNA assays are available or not
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