47 research outputs found

    A change in microsatellite instability caused by cisplatin-based chemotherapy of ovarian cancer

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    To clarify the mechanism of acquired CDDP resistance in ovarian cancer, we compared the microsatellite instability (MSI) by the amplification of 10 microsatellite loci and immunohistochemical detection of hMSH2 and hMLH1 expression between the primary resected tumours and the secondary resected residual tumours after 5 or 6 courses of CDDP-based chemotherapy in the 24 cases of ovarian cancer. Of the 24 primary resected tumours, 9 (37.5%) showed MSI (7 cases of MSI-L, 2 cases of MSI-H), while 15 (72.5%) were microsatellite stable tumours (MSS). The primary tumours also had MSI in the residual tumours after CDDP-based chemotherapy. However, all of the cases with MSS in the primary resected tumours exhibited MSI (2 cases were MSI-L, and 13 cases were MSI-H) in the residual tumours after CDDP-based chemotherapy (P< 0.001). Furthermore, 11 (73.3%) of these cases which changed from MSS to MSI also had a change in the expression of hMLH1 from positive to undetectable (P< 0.001). Our data suggest that tumour MSI changes during CDDP-based chemotherapy, and that the loss of hMLH1 expression is one of the factors that has the greatest effect on this transformation. © 2001 Cancer Research Campaignhttp://www.bjcancer.co

    Phylogenetic Constraints Do Not Explain the Rarity of Nitrogen-Fixing Trees in Late-Successional Temperate Forests

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    Symbiotic nitrogen (N)-fixing trees are rare in late-successional temperate forests, even though these forests are often N limited. Two hypotheses could explain this paradox. The 'phylogenetic constraints hypothesis' states that no late-successional tree taxa in temperate forests belong to clades that are predisposed to N fixation. Conversely, the 'selective constraints hypothesis' states that such taxa are present, but N-fixing symbioses would lower their fitness. Here we test the phylogenetic constraints hypothesis.Using U.S. forest inventory data, we derived successional indices related to shade tolerance and stand age for N-fixing trees, non-fixing trees in the 'potentially N-fixing clade' (smallest angiosperm clade that includes all N fixers), and non-fixing trees outside this clade. We then used phylogenetically independent contrasts (PICs) to test for associations between these successional indices and N fixation. Four results stand out from our analysis of U.S. trees. First, N fixers are less shade-tolerant than non-fixers both inside and outside of the potentially N-fixing clade. Second, N fixers tend to occur in younger stands in a given geographical region than non-fixers both inside and outside of the potentially N-fixing clade. Third, the potentially N-fixing clade contains numerous late-successional non-fixers. Fourth, although the N fixation trait is evolutionarily conserved, the successional traits are relatively labile.These results suggest that selective constraints, not phylogenetic constraints, explain the rarity of late-successional N-fixing trees in temperate forests. Because N-fixing trees could overcome N limitation to net primary production if they were abundant, this study helps to understand the maintenance of N limitation in temperate forests, and therefore the capacity of this biome to sequester carbon

    First M87 Event Horizon Telescope results: VIII. Magnetic field structure near the Event Horizon

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    Polarimetric Properties of Event Horizon Telescope Targets from ALMA

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    We present the results from a full polarization study carried out with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) during the first Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) campaign, which was conducted in 2017 April in the lambda 3 mm and lambda 1.3 mm bands, in concert with the Global mm-VLBI Array (GMVA) and the Event Horizon Telescope (EHT), respectively. We determine the polarization and Faraday properties of all VLBI targets, including Sgr A*, M87, and a dozen radio-loud active galactic nuclei (AGNs), in the two bands at several epochs in a time window of 10 days. We detect high linear polarization fractions (2%-15%) and large rotation measures (RM > 10(3.3)-10(5.5) rad m(-2)), confirming the trends of previous AGN studies at millimeter wavelengths. We find that blazars are more strongly polarized than other AGNs in the sample, while exhibiting (on average) order-of-magnitude lower RM values, consistent with the AGN viewing angle unification scheme. For Sgr A* we report a mean RM of (-4.2 0.3) x 10(5) rad m(-2) at 1.3 mm, consistent with measurements over the past decade and, for the first time, an RM of (-2.1 0.1) x 10(5) rad m(-2) at 3 mm, suggesting that about half of the Faraday rotation at 1.3 mm may occur between the 3 mm photosphere and the 1.3 mm source. We also report the first unambiguous measurement of RM toward the M87 nucleus at millimeter wavelengths, which undergoes significant changes in magnitude and sign reversals on a one year timescale, spanning the range from -1.2 to 0.3 x 10(5) rad m(-2) at 3 mm and -4.1 to 1.5 x 10(5) rad m(-2) at 1.3 mm. Given this time variability, we argue that, unlike the case of Sgr A*, the RM in M87 does not provide an accurate estimate of the mass accretion rate onto the black hole. We put forward a two-component model, comprised of a variable compact region and a static extended region, that can simultaneously explain the polarimetric properties observed by both the EHT (on horizon scales) and ALMA (which observes the combined emission from both components). These measurements provide critical constraints for the calibration, analysis, and interpretation of simultaneously obtained VLBI data with the EHT and GMVA

    Resolving the Inner Parsec of the Blazar J1924-2914 with the Event Horizon Telescope

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    The blazar J1924-2914 is a primary Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) calibrator for the Galactic center's black hole Sagittarius A*. Here we present the first total and linearly polarized intensity images of this source obtained with the unprecedented 20 mu as resolution of the EHT. J1924-2914 is a very compact flat-spectrum radio source with strong optical variability and polarization. In April 2017 the source was observed quasi-simultaneously with the EHT (April 5-11), the Global Millimeter VLBI Array (April 3), and the Very Long Baseline Array (April 28), giving a novel view of the source at four observing frequencies, 230, 86, 8.7, and 2.3 GHz. These observations probe jet properties from the subparsec to 100 pc scales. We combine the multifrequency images of J1924-2914 to study the source morphology. We find that the jet exhibits a characteristic bending, with a gradual clockwise rotation of the jet projected position angle of about 90 degrees between 2.3 and 230 GHz. Linearly polarized intensity images of J1924-2914 with the extremely fine resolution of the EHT provide evidence for ordered toroidal magnetic fields in the blazar compact core

    Cerebral ischemic damage in diabetes: an inflammatory perspective

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