2,774 research outputs found

    Stiffer optical tweezers through real-time feedback control

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    Using real-time re-programmable signal processing we connect acousto-optic steering and back-focal-plane interferometric position detection in optical tweezers to create a fast feedback controlled instrument. When trapping 3 µm latex beads in water we find that proportional-gain position-clamping increases the effective lateral trap stiffness ~13-fold. A theoretical power spectrum for bead fluctuations during position-clamped trapping is derived and agrees with the experimental data. The loop delay, ~19 µs in our experiment, limits the maximum achievable effective trap stiffness

    The Effect of Columnar Disorder on the Superconducting Transition of a Type-II Superconductor in Zero Applied Magnetic Field

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    We investigate the effect of random columnar disorder on the superconducting phase transition of a type-II superconductor in zero applied magnetic field using numerical simulations of three dimensional XY and vortex loop models. We consider both an unscreened model, in which the bare magnetic penetration length is approximated as infinite, and a strongly screened model, in which the magnetic penetration length is of order the vortex core radius. We consider both equilibrium and dynamic critical exponents. We show that, as in the disorder free case, the equilibrium transitions of the unscreened and strongly screened models lie in the same universality class, however scaling is now anisotropic. We find for the correlation length exponent ν=1.2±0.1\nu=1.2\pm 0.1, and for the anisotropy exponent ζ=1.3±0.1\zeta=1.3\pm 0.1. We find different dynamic critical exponents for the unscreened and strongly screened models.Comment: 30 pages 12 ps figure

    Conformation of a Polyelectrolyte Complexed to a Like-Charged Colloid

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    We report results from a molecular dynamics (MD) simulation on the conformations of a long flexible polyelectrolyte complexed to a charged sphere, \textit{both negatively charged}, in the presence of neutralizing counterions in the strong Coulomb coupling regime. The structure of this complex is very sensitive to the charge density of the polyelectrolyte. For a fully charged polyelectrolyte the polymer forms a dense two-dimensional "disk", whereas for a partially charged polyelectrolyte the monomers are spread over the colloidal surface. A mechanism involving the \textit{overcharging} of the polyelectrolyte by counterions is proposed to explain the observed conformations.Comment: 4 pages, 4 figures (6 EPS files

    Localized Flux Lines and the Bose Glass

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    Columnar defects provide effective pinning centers for magnetic flux lines in high--TcT_{\rm c} superconductors. Utilizing a mapping of the statistical mechanics of directed lines to the quantum mechanics of two--dimensional bosons, one expects an entangled flux liquid phase at high temperatures, separated by a second--order localization transition from a low--temperature ``Bose glass'' phase with infinite tilt modulus. Recent decoration experiments have demonstrated that below the matching field the repulsive forces between the vortices may be sufficiently large to produce strong spatial correlations in the Bose glass. This is confirmed by numerical simulations, and a remarkably wide soft ``Coulomb gap'' at the chemical potential is found in the distribution of pinning energies. At low currents, the dominant transport mechanism in the Bose glass phase proceeds via the formation of double kinks between not necessarily adjacent columnar pins, similar to variable--range hopping in disordered semiconductors. The strong correlation effects originating in the long--range vortex interactions drastically reduce variable--range hopping transport.Comment: 10 pages, latex ("lamuphys.sty" file included), 6 figures can be obtained from the author ([email protected]); to appear in Proc. XIV Sitges conference on "Complex Behaviour of Glassy Systems" (Springer--Verlag

    Vortex glass transition in a random pinning model

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    We study the vortex glass transition in disordered high temperature superconductors using Monte Carlo simulations. We use a random pinning model with strong point-correlated quenched disorder, a net applied magnetic field, longrange vortex interactions, and periodic boundary conditions. From a finite size scaling study of the helicity modulus, the RMS current, and the resistivity, we obtain critical exponents at the phase transition. The new exponents differ substantially from those of the gauge glass model, but are consistent with those of the pure three-dimensional XY model.Comment: 7 pages RevTeX, 4 eps figure

    New methods for clustering district heating users based on consumption patterns

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    This is the author accepted manuscript. The final version is available from the publisher via the DOI in this recordUnderstanding energy users’ consumption patterns benefits both utility companies and consumers as it can support improving energy management and usage strategies. The rapid deployment of smart metering facilities has enabled the analysis of consumption patterns based on high-precision real usage data. This paper investigates data-driven unsupervised learning techniques to partition district heating users into separate clusters such that users in the same cluster possess similar consumption pattern. Taking into account the characteristics of heat usage, three new approaches of extracting pattern features from consumption data are proposed. Clustering algorithms with these features are executed on a real-world district heating consumption dataset. The results can reveal typical daily consumption patterns when the consumption linearly related to ambient temperature is removed. Users with heat usages that are highly imbalanced within a certain period of time or are highly consistent with the utility heat production load can also be grouped together. Our methods can facilitate gaining better knowledge regarding the behaviors of district heating users and hence can potentially be used to formulate new pricing and energy reduction solutions.European Commissio

    Current--Voltage Characteristics of Two--Dimensional Vortex Glass Models

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    We have performed Monte Carlo simulations to determine current--voltage characteristics of two different vortex glass models in two dimensions. The results confirm the conclusions of earlier studies that there is a transition at T=0T=0. In addition we find that, as T0T\to 0, the linear resistance vanishes exponentially, and the current scale, JnlJ_{nl}, where non-linearities appear in the II--VV characteristics varies roughly as T3T^3, quite different from the predictions of conventional flux creep theory, JnlTJ_{nl} \sim T. The results for the two models agree quite well with each other, and also agree fairly well with recent experiments on very thin films of YBCO.Comment: 18 pages with 10 figures available upon request from R. A. Hyman at [email protected]. The only change in the new version is the deletion of an unimportant comment.IUCM94-01

    Scaling of the spin stiffness in random spin-1/2 chains : Crossover from pure-metallic behaviour to random singlet-localized regime

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    In this paper we study the localization transition induced by the disorder in random antiferromagnetic spin-1/2 chains. The results of numerical large scale computations are presented for the XX model using its free fermions representation. The scaling behavior of the spin stiffness is investigated for various disorder strengths. The disorder dependence of the localization length is studied and a comparison between numerical results and bosonization arguments is presented. A non trivial connection between localization effects and the crossover from the pure XX fixed point to the infinite randomness fixed point is pointed out.Comment: Published version, 7 pages, 6 figure

    Preliminary design study of a baseline MIUS

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    Results of a conceptual design study to establish a baseline design for a modular integrated utility system (MIUS) are presented. The system concept developed a basis for evaluating possible projects to demonstrate an MIUS. For the baseline study, climate conditions for the Washington, D.C., area were used. The baseline design is for a high density apartment complex of 496 dwelling units with a planned full occupancy of approximately 1200 residents. Environmental considerations and regulations for the MIUS installation are discussed. Detailed cost data for the baseline MIUS are given together with those for design and operating variations under climate conditions typified by Las Vegas, Nevada, Houston, Texas, and Minneapolis, Minnesota. In addition, results of an investigation of size variation effects, for 300 and 1000 unit apartment complexes, are presented. Only conceptual aspects of the design are discussed. Results regarding energy savings and costs are intended only as trend information and for use in relative comparisons. Alternate heating, ventilation, and air conditioning concepts are considered in the appendix
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