59,415 research outputs found

    Performance of the local reconstruction algorithms for the CMS hadron calorimeter with Run 2 data

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    A description is presented of the algorithms used to reconstruct energy deposited in the CMS hadron calorimeter during Run 2 (2015–2018) of the LHC. During Run 2, the characteristic bunch-crossing spacing for proton-proton collisions was 25 ns, which resulted in overlapping signals from adjacent crossings. The energy corresponding to a particular bunch crossing of interest is estimated using the known pulse shapes of energy depositions in the calorimeter, which are measured as functions of both energy and time. A variety of algorithms were developed to mitigate the effects of adjacent bunch crossings on local energy reconstruction in the hadron calorimeter in Run 2, and their performance is compared

    Study on impact toughness of TMCP and quenched and tempered high strength steels

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    In this study, the effect of steel rolling technique, temperature, yield strength and welding heat input on the impact toughness of high-strength steels is studied. The impact toughness of five kinds of high strength steels with yield strength of 550 MPa, 690 MPa and 890 MPa are experimentally studied. The standard Charpy V-notch test is carried out and the absorbed energy AKV of the test specimens is obtained. The test results show that the impact toughness of QT550 high-strength steel is not sensitive to temperature and it also has good impact performance at low temperature. For other high strength steels, with increase of steel strength, the impact toughness is severely degraded with decreasing temperature. For the effect of rolling technique on impact toughness, the QT type high-strength steel generally follows the law that the impact toughness deteriorates with the increase of the yield strength. QT process can produce better impact resistance than TMCP process for 690 grade steel. The effect of temperature on the impact toughness of WM is intensified at high heat input. The impact toughness of the base material (BM), heat-affected zone (HAZ) and weld metal (WM) deteriorates with the rise of the yield strength. QT550 and QT690 show different impact characteristics for HAZ and WM. The former HAZ has better impact performance under high heat input while WM is better under low heat input; both HAZ and WM of QT690 show higher impact toughness under low heat input

    Supplementary Material for: A novel dry simulator model for learning comprehensive endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography/endoscopic sphincterotomy procedures while minimizing adverse bleeding events (with Video)

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    Background: Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) and endoscopic sphincterotomy (EST) are essential skills for endoscopic cholangio-pancreatic procedures. However, these procedures have a high incidence of adverse events, and most training is currently patient-based. Herein, we aimed to develop an ERCP/EST simulator model to address the need for safer training alternatives, especially for learners with limited ERCP experience. Methods: The model was designed to facilitate the use of actual endoscopic devices, supporting learning objectives that align with the components of the validated Bethesda ERCP Skill Assessment Tool (BESAT). BESAT focuses on skills such as papillary alignment and maintenance of duodenoscope position, gentle and efficient cannulation, controlled sphincterotomy in the correct trajectory, and guidewire manipulation. Thirty gastroenterology trainees used the simulator between May 2022 and March 2023, and their satisfaction was assessed using a visual analog scale (VAS) and pre- and post-training questionnaires. Results: The novel simulator model comprises a disposable duodenal papillary portion, suitable for incision with an electrosurgical knife, alongside washable upper gastrointestinal tract and bile duct portions, designed for repeated use. The duodenal papillary portion enabled reproduction of a realistic endoscope position and the adverse bleeding events due to improper incisions. The bile duct portion allowed for the reproduction of fluoroscopic-like images, enabling learners to practice guidewire guidance and insert other devices. After training, the median VAS score reflecting the expectation for model learning significantly increased from 69.5 (interquartile range [IQR]:55.5–76.5) to 85.5 (IQR: 78.0–92.0) (P<0.01). All participants expressed their desire for repeated simulator training sessions. Conclusions: This innovative simulator serves as a practical educational tool, particularly beneficial for novices in ERCP. It facilitates hands-on practice with actual devices, enhancing procedural fluency and understanding of precise incisions to minimize the risk of bleeding complications during EST

    Glyphosate Disorders Soil <i>Enchytraeid</i> Gut Microbiota and Increases Its Antibiotic Resistance Risk

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    Pesticides promote the stable development of intensive global agriculture. Nevertheless, their residues in the soil can cause ecological and human health risks. Glyphosate is a popular herbicide and is generally thought to be ecologically safe and nontoxic, but this conclusion has been questioned. Herein, we investigated the interaction among soil fauna (Enchytraeus crypticus) exposed to glyphosate and found that glyphosate induced oxidative stress and detoxification responses in E. crypticus and disturbed their lipid metabolism and digestive systems. We further demonstrated that glyphosate disordered the gut microbiota of E. crypticus and increased the abundance of resistance determinants with significant human health risks. Empirical tests and structural equation models were then used to confirm that glyphosate could cause E. crypticus to generate reactive oxygen species, indirectly interfering with their gut microbiota. Our study provides important implications for deciphering the mechanisms of the ecotoxicity of pesticides under the challenge of worldwide pesticide contamination