40,264 research outputs found

    Ion and polymer dynamics in polymer electrolytes PPO-LiClO4: insights from NMR line-shape analysis

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    We investigate ion and polymer dynamics in polymer electrolytes PPO-LiClO4 performing 2H and 7Li NMR line-shape analysis. Comparison of temperature dependent 7Li and 2H NMR spectra gives evidence for a coupling of ion and polymer dynamics. 2H NMR spectra for various salt concentrations reveal a strong slow down of the polymer segmental motion when the salt content is increased. The 2H NMR line shape further indicates that the segmental motion is governed by dynamical heterogeneities. While the width of the distribution of correlation times G(log tau) is moderate for low and high salt content, an extremely broad distribution exists for an intermediate salt concentration 15:1 PPO-LiClO4. For the latter composition, a weighed superposition of two spectral components, reflecting the fast and the slow polymer segments of the distribution, describes the 2H NMR line shape over a broad temperature range. Analysis of the temperature dependent relative intensity of both spectral components indicates the existence of a continuous rather than a discontinuous distribution G(log tau). Such continuous distribution is consistent with gradual fluctuation of the local salt concentration and, hence, of the local environments of the polymer segments, whereas it is at variance with the existence of large salt-depleted and salt-rich domains featuring fast and slow polymer dynamics, respectively. Finally, for all studied mixtures PPO-LiClO4, the 2H NMR line shape strongly depends on the echo delay in the applied echo-pulse sequence, indicating that the structural relaxation of the polymer segments involves successive rotational jumps about small angles gamma<20 degree.Comment: 11 pages, 11 figure

    Modification of os calcis bone mineral profiles during bedrest

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    The mineral content of the left central os calcis was determined using the photon absorptiometric technique modified for the space missions to permit area scanning, and was compared with total body calcium balance changes. The instrument consists of a rectilinear scanner that is programmed by a specially designed control module to move a low energy X-ray emitting radionuclide placed in opposition to a detector to scan the foot which is places between them. The foot is placed in a plexiglas box filled with water to provide tissue equivalence and to compensate for irregularities in thickness of tissue cover that surrounds the bone. The mineral content is obtained from basic attenuation equation

    Tool pre-tensions covers prior to lacing

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    In securing a bulky object in a storage compartment, a cinching or tightening tool is used to draw two opposing cover halves together at a predetermined tension to permit quick lacing to retain the stored object. This tool is also useful in fabrication industries to draw components together during assembly or treating

    Limit on T-violating P-conserving rhoNN interaction from the gamma decay of Fe-57

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    We use the experimental limit on the interference of M1 and E2 multipoles in the γ decay of 57Fe to bound the time-reversal-violating parity-conserving ρNN vertex. Our approach is a large-basis shell-model calculation of the interference. We find an upper limit on the parameter g¯ρ, the relative strength of the T-violating ρNN vertex, of close to 10^(-2), a value similar to the best limits from other experiments

    Evaluation of the InDUCKtion project at UCL

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    Executive summary: There is evidence that a good induction to university life can help with student retention; however, there is also a danger of overwhelming students during the intense period of fresher’s week. Under the auspices of a small grant from the Higher Education Academy’s ‘Changing the Learning Landscape’ funding stream, staff at two universities (University College London and Southampton Solent University) collaborated to produce an innovative and engaging induction project entitled ‘InDUCKtion’, based on the idea of an induction duck being a fun character for students to interact with. At UCL, the InDUCKtion duck existed in the form of a physical plastic duck included in international postgraduate student induction packs, and they were encouraged to take photos of themselves in and around UCL and London as part of a photo challenge using social media. It was anticipated that this would enable students to familiarise themselves with the locale, make friends and have fun at the same time. The InDUCKtion duck was also evident on flyers and posters with QR codes advertising an online tour to enable students to gain an accelerated familiarisation with the campus and its facilities. Within UCL, the project was a collaborative, cross-departmental venture instigated by members of UCL’s E-Learning Environments (ELE) working in partnership with the Centre for the Advancement of Learning and Teaching (CALT) and Student Support and Wellbeing (SSW). The logistics of the project meant that the team members also had to liaise with a number of other individuals and departments around UCL, to help promote and implement the project. Despite a rapid following on Twitter in a relatively short period, a reasonable hit rate on the QR code for the main page of the online tour resource, and some engagement with the photo challenges using social media, participation in the project was lower than anticipated. Lessons learned from an evaluation perspective revealed that adding another activity to an already overwhelming fresher’s week was problematic, despite its innovative and interactive nature. The use of QR codes was problematic for a number of reasons, and the project needed more buy-in from student representatives and academics to provide institutional endorsement. Recommendations for future instances of the project include securing student representation and academic endorsement, integrating the activity with parallel induction activities – particularly with academic departments, replacing QR codes with an alternative technology-enhanced learning approach and optimising the learning design to better motivate students and promote groupwork

    Necessary and sufficient conditions for bipartite entanglement

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    Necessary and sufficient conditions for bipartite entanglement are derived, which apply to arbitrary Hilbert spaces. Motivated by the concept of witnesses, optimized entanglement inequalities are formulated solely in terms of arbitrary Hermitian operators, which makes them useful for applications in experiments. The needed optimization procedure is based on a separability eigenvalue problem, whose analytical solutions are derived for a special class of projection operators. For general Hermitian operators, a numerical implementation of entanglement tests is proposed. It is also shown how to identify bound entangled states with positive partial transposition.Comment: 7 pages, 2 figur