168 research outputs found

    Valtion rahoittaman rakentamisen ongelmat

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    Raportissa selvitet√§√§n valtion rahoittamien rakennushankkeiden suunnittelun ja toteuttamisen tehokkuutta sek√§ hankkeiden aikataulu- ja kustannusongelmia. Selvitysmiehelt√§ edellytettiin selkeit√§ suosituksia n√§iden ongelmien v√§hent√§miseksi. Selvityksess√§ on k√§yty l√§pi Liikenneviraston ja Senaatti-kiinteist√∂jen projektinhallintaj√§rjestelm√§t sek√§ analysoitu viime vuosien rakennushankkeiden onnistumista. Analyysin lopputulos oli, ett√§ molempien organisaatioiden j√§rjestelm√§t on kehitetty riitt√§v√§lle tasolle. Sen sijaan selvitys paljasti, ett√§ sellaiset hankkeet, joissa valtio on mukana rahoittajana, n√§ytt√§v√§t jopa p√§√§s√§√§nt√∂isesti ep√§onnistuvan. Selvitykseen liittyi my√∂s muiden pohjoismaiden rakentamisk√§yt√§nt√∂jen kartoitus. Suosituksista t√§rkein on ehdotus, ett√§ Suomessa alettaisiin v√§yl√§politiikassa noudattaa Ruotsin ja Norjan k√§yt√§nt√∂j√§. N√§iss√§ maissa laaditaan jokaisella vaalikaudella parlamentaarisesti pidemm√§n aikav√§lin v√§yl√§suunnitelma. Yhteisrakennushankkeisiin liittyen esitet√§√§n, ett√§ valtion rahoitus tulee aina m√§√§ritell√§ ‚ÄĚenimm√§isen√§‚ÄĚ sek√§ eurom√§√§r√§isesti ett√§ prosentuaalisesti. Valtion osallistumisen pelis√§√§nn√∂t n√§iden hankkeiden ohjaukseen tulee selkiytt√§√§ ja vaikutusmahdollisuuksia lis√§t√§. Valtion kiinteist√∂jen kehitt√§misohjelma tulee laatia ja toimeenpanna mm. ty√∂ymp√§rist√∂jen modernisoimiseksi ja vuokras√§√§st√∂jen aikaansaamiseksi. Allianssimallin k√§ytt√∂√§ tulee lis√§t√§. Allianssi-elinkaari-mallin k√§ytt√∂√§ tulee tehostaa erityisesti julkisten rakennusten sis√§ilmaongelmien ehk√§isemiseksi. Budjetoinnissa esitet√§√§n v√§yl√§verkon kehitt√§misess√§ siirtymist√§ viisivuotisen siirtom√§√§r√§rahan k√§ytt√∂√∂n. V√§yl√§hankkeita ei tulisi aloittaa lis√§budjettip√§√§t√∂ksi

    DNA based detection of blackleg and soft rot disease causing Erwinia strains in seed potatoes

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    Erwinia carotovora subsp. atroseptica (Eca), Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora (Ecc) and Erwinia chrysanthemi (Ech) are the different sub species of Erwinia that cause the diseases commonly known as blackleg, aerial stem rot and soft rot on potato. Blackleg and aerial stem rot affect vines during the growing season, whereas soft rot affects tubers in the field and during transit and storage. The three species can cause soft rot under cool and moist conditions. E. carotovora subsp. atroseptica is the major cause of blackleg, a blackening of the stem base of potato plants, which originates from the mother tuber (Pérombelon and Kelman, 1987). Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora mainly causes aerial stem rot (aerial blackleg), but under high temperatures it has been reported to cause blackleg like symptoms. E. chrysanthemi also induces blackleg-like symptoms. Until recently E. chrysanthemi had been mainly confined to warmer climates of Europe, Australia and the tropics. To date the species has been known to occur in cool temperate regions including Finland. In Finland E. chrysanthemi the strain has been reported for the first time in 2004 and it appears to spread fast in certain parts of country (Degefu, unpublished, Pirhonen, personal communication). Although infested crop residues and rotting tubers are among the important sources of inoculum, latent infections in seed tuber provide the major source of infection in potato production (Hannukkala and Segertedt, 2004). At the seed potato laboratory MTT, Ruukki we are carrying out research and services on PCR (DNA) based detection of latent infection of blackleg and soft rot Erwinia strains. The enrichment of the bacteria in semi selective liquid medium prior to PCR ( BIO-PCR) is an important initial step for the success in PCR detection extremely low number of the target bacteria from tubers. The different strains appear to differ in their ability to compete with other saprophytes and reach the target detection limit of bacterial population during the enrichment culture of the potato peel extract. Results of prior PCR enrichment of the bacteria, detection limits of the different strains and preliminary data, from the analysis of some seed lots from the high grade area of north Ostrobothnia and Åland regions, on the occurrence of the strains and the new trends of introduction and spread of E. chrysanthemi in Finland are presented and discussed. Evaluation of the current status of Erwinia diagnostics and areas of future research are highlighte

    Influence of weather conditions during swath drying on the nutritive value of hay

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    The influence of weather conditions during swath drying on the composition and nutritive value of hay was investigated at seven plots of conditioned Gramineae hay. Hays were tedded 1-2 times a day except on rainy days. Five of the hays were sampled and analyzed daily, two at cutting and baling and on one other day only. One hay was harvested in fine weather and dried in just over two days. The protein content decreased, but the sugar content remained unchanged. The f.u. value (fattening feed unit = 0.7 x starch unit) fell 4 %, the DCP value 12 %. A second hay was exposed to eight days of rain. The main changes were a rise in lignin content and decrease in digestibility. The protein and sugar contents and the pepsin solubility of protein changed very little. The f.u. value fell 18 %, the DCP value2 %. Five other hays were 6-12 days as swath in variable rainy and dry weather conditions. The quality changed depending on the time, duration and amount of rain. The decreases of f. u. and DCP values were 10-30 % and 8-28 %, respectively. The contents of sugar, ash and crude fat fell 31-64, 3-51 and 36-39%, while the crude fibre content rose 6-23 %. The reduction in the DCP value in bad weather depended more on the decrease of pepsin solubility of protein than on the decrease of protein content. The potassium content of hay proved to be a good measure of the leaching due to rain. In the present hays the potassium content decreased 0-79 %. The average total losses calculated on the basis of lignin content of hay were as follows (ranges in parenthesis): DM 22 % (12-29), F. u. 35 % (15-51), DCP 32 % (22-49), sugars + fructosan 50 % (12-74) and ash 33 % (18-65)

    Associations of social and emotional competencies, academic efficacy beliefs, and emotional distress among students in lower secondary school

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    This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate how perceived social-emotional competencies (SECs), relationship skills, emotional regulation, and the ability to structure schoolwork at school and at home were associated with academic efficacy belief (AEB) and emotional distress among 1142 Norwegian eighth-grade students. The students answered an Internet-based questionnaire during school hours. Structural equation modeling was used to assess the paths of associations. In the structural model, AEB was treated as an intermediate variable predicted by the other SECs and as a predictor of emotional distress. Perceived relationship skills, emotional regulation, and the ability to structure schoolwork showed moderate to strong associations with AEB. AEB showed a strong association with emotional distress, whereas relationship skills and emotional regulation showed a moderately strong association with emotional distress. The results suggest that all SECs play a role in AEB, whereas high AEB, good perceived ability for emotional regulation, and relationship skills are linked to less emotional distress. Good perceived relationship skills, emotional regulation, and structuring of schoolwork were more strongly related to less emotional distress among females. Moreover, emotional regulation and structuring of schoolwork were more strongly associated with AEB for females. These findings may indicate that these SECs may be more essential to emotional well-being among female adolescent students.publishedVersio

    Kolesterolnivån och intaget av mättat fett har ökat

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    Intentions to quit upper secondary education among first generation immigrants and native Norwegians: the role of loneliness and peer victimization

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    Dropout from upper secondary education is a persistent educational problem, particularly among first-generation immigrant youth. This study examined factors associated with intentions to dropout to gain further insight into the process of leaving upper secondary education. The analyses of 1299 Norwegian first-year upper secondary school students’ (88% native Norwegians, 12% first-generation immigrants) self-reported intentions to quit school, loneliness, and peer victimization in school showed that first-generation immigrants experienced higher levels of loneliness than native Norwegians. In contrast, there were no differences in the levels of peer victimization and intentions to quit between native Norwegians and first-generation immigrants. However, loneliness showed a significantly stronger association with intentions to quit among first-generation immigrants. The results underscore the importance of tackling first-generation immigrants’ loneliness in school to reduce their intentions to quit upper secondary education and thus potentially improve conditions for school completion.publishedVersio
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