112 research outputs found

    In vitro cultivation of tansy (Tanacetum vulgare L.): a tool for the production of potent pharmaceutical agents

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    In this study, tansy (Tanacetum vulgare L.) in vitro culture was established from seeds collected from natural populations. The multiplication of plantlets was conducted through shoot tips that exhibited potent apical growth and regeneration capacities on basal medium (BM), without the addition of any plant growth regulators (PGRs). PGRs were also omitted for the establishment and cultivation of tansy root cultures. Both abaxial and adaxial leaf surfaces of in vitro micropropagated plantlets were covered with glandular biseriate trichomes. Histochemical staining showed that glandular secretions were rich in lipid and terpene compounds, confirmed by GC-MS analysis of essential oil (EO). In the total EO, similar portions of oxygenated monoterpenes (38.5% m/m) and oxygenated sesquiterpenes (22.6% m/m) were detected. Chemical profiles of methanol extracts of in vitro cultured tansy shoots and roots varied in quantity and quality from those obtained from wild-growingtansy. HPLC analysis indicated that the methanol extracts of in vitro cultured roots were the richest in 3,5-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid (3,5-O-DCQA), in which the concentration was 6 times higher (10.220 mg/g DW) than that in the extract obtained from roots of wild-growing tansy (1.684 mg/g DW). This result is noticeable in the manner of industrial production of biologically active 3,5-O-DCQA that has been shown to have antioxidant, hepatoprotective, antiviral, antimutagenic, and immunomodulatory activity. Biotechnological interventions on secondary metabolite production taking place in trichomes could further enhance the production of some important tansy metabolites and further investigation will be directed toward the elucidation of the pharmaceutical potential of tansy in vitro obtained metabolites, as mixtures or single moieties

    Gentianella lutescens subsp. carpatica J. Holub.: Shoot Propagation In Vitro and Effect of Sucrose and Elicitors on Xanthones Production

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    In vitro shoot culture of the endangered medicinal plant Gentianella lutescens was established from epicotyl explants cultured on MS basal medium with 0.2 mg L−1 6-benzylaminopurine (BA) and evaluated for xanthones content for the first time. Five shoot lines were obtained and no significant variations in multiplication rate, shoot elongation, and xanthones profile were found among them. The highest rooting rate (33.3%) was achieved by shoots treated for 2 days with 5 mg L−1 indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) followed by cultivation in liquid PGR-free ½ MS medium for 60 days. HPLC analysis revealed the lower content of xanthones—mangiferin, bellidifolin, demethylbellidifolin, demethylbellidifolin-8-O-glucoside and bellidifolin-8-O-glucoside—in in vitro cultured shoots compared to wild growing plants. The increasing concentration of sucrose, sorbitol and abiotic elicitors salicylic acid (SA), jasmonic acid (JA) and methyl jasmonate (MeJA) altered shoot growth and xanthone production. Sucrose and sorbitol applied at the highest concentration of 233.6 mM increased dry matter percentage, while SA at 100 μM promoted shoot growth 2-fold. The increased sucrose concentration enhanced accumulation of xanthones in shoot cultures 2–3-fold compared to the control shoots. Elicitors at 100–300 μM increased the accumulation of mangiferin, demethylbellidifolin-8-O-glucoside, and bellidifolin-8-O-glucoside almost equally, while MeJA at the highest concentration of 500 μM enhanced amount of aglycones demethylbellidifolin and bellidifolin 7-fold compared to the control. The obtained results facilitate conservation of G. lutescens and pave the way for further research on large-scale shoot propagation and production of pharmacologically active xanthones

    Xanthones Production in Gentiana dinarica Beck Hairy Root Cultures Grown in Simple Bioreactors

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    The hairy root clones of Gentiana dinarica cl-B, cl-D, cl-3, and cl-14 were cultivated in parallel in diverse simple bioreactors, including temporary immersion systems RITA® (TIS RITA®), bubble column bioreactors (BCB), and Erlenmeyer flasks (EF), and evaluated for biomass production and xanthone content. The obtained results showed that TIS RITA® and BCB containing ½ MS medium with 4% sucrose provided equally good growth conditions in which the majority of the clones displayed the higher percentage of dry matter (DM%), and xanthones norswertianin-1-O-primeveroside (nor-1-O-prim) and norswertianin production than those cultivated in EF. Thin and well branched hairy root clone cl-B grown in BCB for 7 weeks was superior regarding all growth parameters tested, including growth index (19.97), dry weight (2.88 g), and DM% (25.70%) compared to all other clones. Cl-B cultured in TIS RITA® contained the highest amount of nor-1-O-prim (56.82 mg per vessel). In BCB with constant aeration, cl-B accumulated the highest norswertianin content reaching 18.08 mg/vessel. The optimized conditions for cultivation of selected G. dinarica hairy root clones in highly aerated TIS RITA® and BCB systems contribute to the development of bioreactor technology designed for the large scale commercial production of xanthones nor-1-O-prim and norswertianin

    Introduction of the Nicotiana protein kinase (NPK1) gene by combiningAgrobacterium-mediated transformation and recurrent somatic embryogenesis to enhance salt tolerance in cauliflower

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    Key message The results underlined that constitutively expressingNPK1can significantly contribute to enhanced salt stress tolerance in cauliflower, suggesting that this could be a promising basis for the creation of new stress tolerance cruciferous vegetable lines. Cauliflower is exposed to various biotic and abiotic stresses, including increased salinity due to the intensive irrigation of crops. Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades are universal signal transduction modules that play important roles in regulating innate immune responses in plants. Based on involvement of tobacco MAP kinase kinase kinase (NPK1) in stress response, the effect of the expression ofNPK1transgene to NaCl salt stress tolerance in cauliflower KFRM4 lines was studied. TheAgrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation protocol, using EHA101(pSHX004) vector harbouring theNPK1and phosphinothricinN-acetyltransferase (bar) genes, the cyclic somatic embryogenesis regeneration pathway, the application of acetosyringone (AS) during co-cultivation and a delayed phosphinothricine (PPT) selection procedure provided sufficient transformation efficiency of 7.33% without escapes. PCR analysis indicated the integration of bothNPK1andbartransgenes in regenerated cauliflower lines. Transgenic cauliflower lines, exposed to NaCl stress in vitro, showed higher growth rates, greater ability to retain chlorophyll and carotenoids, and increased osmotic regulation capacity compared with non-transformed control plants. The tolerance level of transformed lines correlated with the level ofNPK1gene expression estimated by RT-qPCR, and the L2 line with the highestNPK1expression displayed the greatest tolerance to NaCl stress. None of the obtained cauliflower transformed lines grown in greenhouses showed any morphological or yield differences compared with non-transformed plants. Furthermore, the expression of thebargene facilitated the tolerance of transformed lines to the total herbicide PPT, applied at concentrations 2-3 times higher than those routinely used for weed control in the crop field

    Xanthone-rich extract from Gentiana dinarica transformed roots and its active component norswertianin induce autophagy and ROS-dependent differentiation of human glioblastoma cell line

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    BACKGROUND Glioblastoma multiforme (GMB) is the most malignant of all brain tumors with poor prognosis. Anticancer potential of xanthones, bioactive compounds found in Gentiana dinarica, is well-documented. Transformation of G. dinarica roots with Agrobacterium rhizogenes provides higher xanthones accumulation, which enables better exploitation of these anticancer compounds. HYPOTHESIS/PURPOSE The aim of this study was to investigate antiglioma effect of three different G. dinarica extracts: E1—derived from untransformed roots, E2—derived from roots transformed using A. rhizogenes strain A4M70GUS, and E3—derived from roots transformed using A. rhizogenes strain 15834/PI. Further, mechanisms involved in anticancer potential of the most potent extract were examined in detail, and its active component was determined. METHODS The cell viability was assessed using MTT and crystal violet test. Cell cycle analysis, the expression of differentiation markers, the levels of autophagy, and oxidative stress were analyzed by flow cytometry. Autophagy and related signaling pathways were assessed by immunoblotting. RESULTS E3, in contrast to E1 and E2, strongly reduced growth of U251 human glioblastoma cells, triggered cell cycle arrest in G2/M phase, changed cellular morphology, and increased expression of markers of differentiated astrocytes (glial fibrillary acidic protein) and neurons (β-tubulin). E3 stimulated autophagy, as demonstrated by enhanced intracellular acidification, increased microtubule-associated light chain 3B (LC3-I) conversion to autophagosome associated LC3-II, and decreased level of selective autophagy target p62. Induction of autophagy was associated with Akt-dependent inhibition of main autophagy suppressor mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). Both genetic and pharmacological inhibition of autophagy suppressed the expression of differentiation markers, but had no effect on cell cycle arrest in E3-treated cells. E3 stimulated oxidative stress, and antioxidants vitamin E and N-acetyl cysteine inhibited autophagy and differentiation of E3-treated U251 cells. The most prevalent compound of E3, xanthone aglycone norswertianin, also arrested glioblastoma cell proliferation in G2/M phase and induced glioblastoma cell differentiation through induction of autophagy and oxidative stress. CONCLUSION These results indicate that E3 and its main active component norswertianin may serve as a potential candidate for differentiation therapy of glioblastoma

    Fingerprinting of the antioxidant status in Alyssum markgrafii shoots during nickel hyperaccumulation in vitro

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    This study investigated the role of antioxidant system of Alyssum markgrafii, during long-term exposure to 0.5 or 1 mM NiCl2 × 6H2O in vitro. Applied methodology included sample preparation protocol which reduces oxidation of key metabolites along with novel luminescent method and well-established photometric procedures. During 5-week treatments, plants accumulated 1121 and 2470 ppm of Ni2+ respectively, followed by severe growth retardation, chlorophyll degradation and peroxidation of lipids. These effects were more pronounced after 1 mM Ni2+ treatment and additionally accompanied by increased water loss. Activities of luminol-converting peroxidases and glutathione reductase upon 0.5 mM treatment were increased while catalase and superoxide dismutase were diminished. The fact that these two groups of enzymes run in antiparallel might suggest functional redistribution between antioxidant enzymes rather than orchestrated action to prevent oxidative damage. Total antioxidant capacity (TAC) was also increased after 0.5 mM treatment which coincided with increased GR activity and elevated glutathione content indicating this low molecular weight antioxidant as an important factor associated with nickel tolerance. This study also emphasizes the possible important role of luminol-converting peroxidases in nickel hyperaccumulation, although they are not considered as antioxidant enzymes sensu stricto since some of them can also produce reactive oxygen species as well

    The procedure providing enhanced Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of wheat

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    The examinations of conditions for establishing a variety independent Agrobacterium-mediated transformation procedure for wheat are preferable since many of cultivars and breeding lines remain recalcitrant for biotechnological manipulation, mainly due to low efficiency of plant regeneration in vitro, which is highly genotype specific. This paper describes and discusses an improved protocol for enhanced and low-genotype dependent Agrobacterium-mediated transformation using a super-binary vector LBA4404/pTOK233 carrying reporter gus-intron gene and hygromycin (hpt) and kanamicyn (nptII) selectable marker genes. The protocol was optimized on highly responsive common wheat cv. Vesna. Transient expression monitored by the gus-intron on explants after 3, 6 and 25 days of co-cultivation, followed by GUS expression and hygromycin resistance in whole plants indicated the protocol including a co-cultivation of freshly isolated immature embryos in the presence of ascorbic acid, and acetosyringone added only in the bacteria-containing infection medium combined with a delayed and stepwise increasing hygromycin B selection procedure significantly enhanced the transformation efficiency in cv. Vesna that exceed 7% of treated explants from previously 0.41%. Explant pre-cultivation did not additionally improve transformation efficiency. The optimized protocol was successful in evoking satisfactory transformation efficiencies from 3.6% to 10.8% in 5 less-responsive wheat genotypes. All 57 T0 hygromycin-resistant and GUS-positive lines were phenotypically normal and fertile. Therefore, the conditions employed in this study may serve as a base to facilitate the transformation in other, particularly recalcitrant wheat cultivars

    Aplicabilidade da arbitragem no âmbito dos contratos firmados com o poder público

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    A presente monografia tem por escopo tratar da aplicação da arbitragem nos conflitos em que for parte a Administração Pública. No decorrer deste trabalho irá se demonstrar que a arbitragem não deve ser entendida como um modo acessório de solução de um litígio, mas sim uma opção da parte em não submeter seu conflito ao Poder Judiciário. Para isso será relevante atentar para peculiaridades concernentes aos procedimentos e limites da utilização da arbitragem firmada com entes públicos. Além disso, é feito um enfoque nas legislações de diversos setores como: portuário, transportes terrestres e marítimos, energia elétrica, petróleo e gás natural, enfatizando que, em muitos casos, não se configura a aplicação da arbitragem propriamente dita, mas uma espécie de processo administrativo. Também se trata da aplicação da arbitragem nos setores de concessões e parcerias público-privadas, que merecem destaque, sobretudo, por representarem um fomento às negociações comerciais e aos investimentos, sobretudo, estrangeiros, o que fortalece a economia e os projetos de melhoria de infraestrutura do país. Por fim, conclui-se que o direito precisa se adaptar às novas exigências, que se impõe para a solução dos litígios, de maneira que possa atender de forma satisfatória às especificidades de cada caso concreto
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