1,604 research outputs found

    El baile de los solteros. Pierre Bourdieu

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    Spatial and Temporal Aspects of Populations Revealed by Mitochondrial DNA

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    The evolutionary analysis of DNA sequences bridges phylogenetics and population genetics. Ancient DNA (aDNA) alJows the study of extinct genotypes, populations, and species, as well as dichronic comparisons of extant populations and species. Thus a DNA forges an empirical link between history and two inherently historical fields of research. Fortunately, the conceptual frameworks of phylogenetics and population genetics can easily be extended to encompass advances being made in the study of aDNA

    Maternal and Neonatal Exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke Targets Pro-Inflammatory Genes in Neonatal Arteries

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    Maternal mainstream tobacco smoking is known to have adverse outcomes on fetal respiratory function; however, no data is currently available on the effects of passive exposure to tobacco smoking and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) on fetal systemic arterial structure and function. Eight pregnant rhesus macaque monkeys were studied at the California Regional Primate Research Center breeding colony. The estimated gestational age for each dam was established by sonography performed before gestational day 40. Two inhalation chambers were used, each with an air capacity of 3.5 m3, and each housed two dams. Aged and diluted sidestream smoke was used as a surrogate for ETS. Exposure to ETS (1 mg/m3) occurred for 6 h/day, 5 days/week, beginning on gestational day 100. All dams were allowed to give birth spontaneously and then ETS exposure continued 70–80 days postnatally with the chamber containing both the mother and infant. Carotid arteries from four control (C) and four ETS-treated newborns were analyzed for mRNA by gene macroarray and for protein by Western blotting. A total of 588 cardiovascular genes were studied. Four genes were upregulated by ETS compared to C, and nine genes were downregulated (≥2-fold change). Three genes were selected for further study. Following ETS exposure, neonatal carotid arteries of non-human primates manifested evidence of inflammation with increased gene and protein expression of LFA-1 and RANTES, proteins that are recognized to be important in vascular adhesion and inflammation, and downregulation of expression for the receptor for VEGF, which has a key role in angiogenesis. Prenatal and postnatal exposure to ETS increases expression of pro-inflammatory genes and may be responsible for early arterial vascular remodeling that is predisposing to a subsequent vascular disease

    The Differences in Vegetation Type on North and South-Facing Slopes

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    Our project investigated the relationship between climate change and vegetation type conversion in the Santa Monica Mountains on north and south facing slopes. Our hypothesis is that with a shift in climate towards dryer, hotter, and longer summers, and shorter and dryer winters, we will see a shift in the density of native chaparral in the Santa Monica mountains, and possibly an influx of non-native species. We tested this hypothesis by choosing three study sites that were on north/south ridgelines to simulate a dryer, harsher climate (south) and a more temperate climate (north). Using the point-quarter method to measure the prevalence of each type of plant in each study area we were able to determine what was growing on each slope. Our investigation is significant and relevant because if our hypothesis is correct, and there is a shift towards coastal sage and non-natives in areas that normally had chaparral, there would be serious consequences for the ecosystem and humans. An increase in smaller plants would decrease fire interval, which is dangerous to humans and is devastating to the plant infrastructure as it creates a positive feedback loop that promotes the influx of dry flash fuel invasive and exacerbates the decrease of the fire return interval
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