100 research outputs found

    Cancer-derived p53 mutants suppress p53-target gene expression—potential mechanism for gain of function of mutant p53

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    Tumour-derived p53 mutants are thought to have acquired ‘gain-of-function’ properties that contribute to oncogenicity. We have tested the hypothesis that p53 mutants suppress p53-target gene expression, leading to enhanced cellular growth. Silencing of mutant p53 expression in several human cell lines was found to lead to the upregulation of wild-type p53-target genes such as p21, gadd45, PERP and PTEN. The expression of these genes was also suppressed in H1299-based isogenic cell lines expressing various hot-spot p53 mutants, and silencing of mutant p53, but not TAp73, abrogated the suppression. Consistently, these hot-spot p53 mutants were able to suppress a variety of p53-target gene promoters. Analysis using the proto-type p21 promoter construct indicated that the p53-binding sites are dispensable for mutant p53-mediated suppression. However, treatment with the histone deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin-A resulted in relief of mutant p53-mediated suppression, suggesting that mutant p53 may induce hypo-acetylation of target gene promoters leading to the suppressive effects. Finally, we show that stable down-regulation of mutant p53 expression resulted in reduced cellular colony growth in human cancer cells, which was found to be due to the induction of apoptosis. Together, the results demonstrate another mechanism through which p53 mutants could promote cellular growth

    Spectrum of cellular responses to pyriplatin, a monofunctional cationic antineoplastic platinum(II) compound, in human cancer cells

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    Pyriplatin, cis-diammine(pyridine)chloroplatinum(II), a platinum-based antitumor drug candidate, is a cationic compound with anticancer properties in mice and is a substrate for organic cation transporters that facilitate oxaliplatin uptake. Unlike cisplatin and oxaliplatin, which form DNA cross-links, pyriplatin binds DNA in a monofunctional manner. The antiproliferative effects of pyriplatin, alone and in combination with known anticancer drugs (paclitaxel, gemcitabine, SN38, cisplatin, and 5-fluorouracil), were evaluated in a panel of epithelial cancer cell lines, with direct comparison to cisplatin and oxaliplatin. The effects of pyriplatin on gene expression and platinum–DNA adduct formation were also investigated. Pyriplatin exhibited cytotoxic effects against human cell lines after 24 hours (IC[subscript 50] = 171–443 μmol/L), with maximum cytotoxicity in HOP-62 non–small cell lung cancer cells after 72 hours (IC[subscript 50] = 24 μmol/L). Pyriplatin caused a G[subscript 2]-M cell cycle block similar to that induced by cisplatin and oxaliplatin. Induction of apoptotsis and DNA damage response was supported by Annexin-V analysis and detection of phosphorylated Chk2 and H2AX. Treatment with pyriplatin increased CDKN1/p21 and decreased ERCC1 mRNA expression. On a platinum-per-nucleotide basis, pyriplatin–DNA adducts are less cytotoxic than those of cisplatin and oxaliplatin. The mRNA levels of genes implicated in drug transport and DNA damage repair, including GSTP1 and MSH2, correlate with pyriplatin cellular activity in the panel of cell lines. Synergy occurred for combinations of pyriplatin with paclitaxel. Because its spectrum of activity differs significantly from those of cisplatin or oxaliplatin, pyriplatin is a lead compound for developing novel drug candidates with cytotoxicity profiles unlike those of drugs currently in use

    P73 regulates cisplatin-induced apoptosis in ovarian cancer cells via a calcium/calpain-dependent mechanism

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    P73 is important in drug-induced apoptosis in some cancer cells, yet its role in the regulation of chemosensitivity in ovarian cancer (OVCA) is poorly understood. Furthermore, if and how the deregulation of p73-mediated apoptosis confers resistance to cisplatin (CDDP) treatment is unclear. Here we demonstrate that TAp73α over-expression enhanced CDDP-induced PARP cleavage and apoptosis in both chemosensitive (OV2008 and A2780s) and their resistant counterparts (C13* and A2780cp) and another chemoresistant OVCA cells (Hey); in contrast, the effect of ΔNp73α over-expression was variable. P73α downregulation attenuated CDDP-induced PUMA and NOXA upregulation and apoptosis in OV2008 cells. CDDP decreased p73α steady-state protein levels in OV2008, but not in C13*, although the mRNA expression was identical. CDDP-induced p73α downregulation was mediated by a calpain-dependent pathway. CDDP induced calpain activation and enhanced its cytoplasmic interaction and co-localization with p73α in OV2008, but not C13* cells. CDDP increased the intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) in OV2008 but not C13* whereas cyclopiazonic acid (CPA), a Ca2+-ATPase inhibitor, caused this response and calpain activation, p73α processing and apoptosis in both cell types. CDDP-induced [Ca2+]i increase in OV2008 cells was not effected by the elimination of extracellular Ca2+, but this was attenuated by the depletion of internal Ca2+ store, indicating that mobilization of intracellular Ca2+] stores was potentially involved. These findings demonstrate that p73α and its regulation by the Ca2+-mediated calpain pathway are involved in CDDP-induced apoptosis in OVCA cells and that dysregulation of Ca2+/calpain/p73 signaling may in part be the pathophysiology of CDDP resistance. Understanding the cellular and molecular mechanisms of chemoresistance will direct the development of effective strategies for the treatment of chemoresistant OVCA

    Evaluation of the combined effect of p53 codon 72 polymorphism and hotspot mutations in response to anticancer drugs

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    10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-04-1547Clinical Cancer Research11124348-4356CCRE

    Cisplatinum and Taxol Induce Different Patterns of p53 Phosphorylation

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    Posttranslational modifications of p53 induced by two widely used anticancer agents, cisplatinum (DDP) and taxol were investigated in two human cancer cell lines. Although both drugs were able to induce phosphorylation at serine 20 (Ser20), only DDP treatment induced p53 phosphorylation at serine 15 (Ser15). Moreover, both drug treatments were able to increase p53 levels and consequently the transcription of waf1 and mdm-2 genes, although DDP treatment resulted in a stronger inducer of both genes. Using two ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) cell lines, the role of ATM in drug-induced p53 phosphorylations was investigated. No differences in drug-induced p53 phosphorylation could be observed, indicating that ATM is not the kinase involved in these phosphorylation events. In addition, inhibition of DNA-dependent protein kinase activity by wortmannin did not abolish p53 phosphorylation at Ser15 and Ser20, again indicating that DNA-PK is unlikely to be the kinase involved. After both taxol and DDP treatments, an activation of hCHK2 was found and this is likely to be responsible for phosphorylation at Ser20. In contrast, only DDP was able to activate ATR, which is the candidate kinase for phosphorylation of Ser15 by this drug. This data clearly suggests that differential mechanisms are involved in phosphorylation and activation of p53 depending on the drug type
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