30 research outputs found

    Protection of flunarizine on cerebral mitochondria injury induced by cortical spreading depression under hypoxic conditions

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    A rat cortical spreading depression (CSD) model was established to explore whether cerebral mitochondria injury was induced by CSD under both normoxic and hypoxic conditions and whether flunarizine had a protective effect on cerebral mitochondria. SD rats, which were divided into seven groups, received treatment as follows: no intervention (control Group I); 1 M NaCl injections (Group II); 1 M KCl injections (Group III); intraperitoneal flunarizine (3 mg/kg) 30 min before KCl injections (Group IV); 14% O2 inhalation before NaCl injections (Group V); 14% O2 inhalation followed by KCl injections (Group VI); 14% O2 inhalation and intraperitoneal flunarizine followed by KCl injections (Group VII). Following treatment, brains were removed for the analysis of mitochondria transmembrane potential (MMP) and oxidative respiratory function after recording the number, amplitude and duration of CSD. The duration of CSD was significantly longer in Group VI than that in Group III. The number and duration of CSD in Group VII was significantly lower than that in Group VI. MMP in Group VI was significantly lower than that in Group III, and MMP in Group VII was significantly higher than that in Group VI. State 4 respiration in Group VI was significantly higher than that in Group III, and state 3 respiration in Group VII was significantly higher than that in Group VI. Respiration control of rate in Group VII was also significantly higher than that in Group VI. Thus, we concluded that aggravated cerebral mitochondria injury might be attributed to CSD under hypoxic conditions. Flunarizine can alleviate such cerebral mitochondria injury under both normoxic and hypoxic conditions

    Noot onder EHRM 23 oktober 2018, Guerni versus België

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    External to internal glenohumeral strength ratio in non-traumatic rotator cuff pathologies

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    Abstract: Background and study aims: A correct agonist-antagonist strength relationship for shoulder external and internal rotation is necessary for functional stability of the shoulder. This strength relationship is described by the ratio of external to internal strength (ER/IR).The aim of this stydy is to produce comparative data as regards the ER/IR ratio in subjects with different non-traumatic rotator cuff diseases. Design and setting: A cross-sectional study in an outpatient clinic in a tertiary care university hospital. Methods: In 55 subjects with rotator cuff disease (confirmed by physical examination and assessed by ultrasound and magnetic resonance arthrography), the ER/IR ratio of the shoulder was isometrically measured with a hand-held dynamometer and compared with values pertaining to the unaffected shoulder of the same individuals. Results: The mean ER/IR values in the overall group were 0.89 (SD 0.18) and 0.94 (SD 0.22) for the affected and unaffected shoulders, respectively. The ratio was 0.87 (SD 0.23) in patients with subdeltoid bursitis, 0.88 (SD 0.16) in rotator cuff tendinopathy and 0.87 (SD 0.22) in patients with rotator cuff tears. Conclusions: The ER/IR ratio appears to be similar between the affected and unaffected shoulders of subjects with nontraumatic cuff pathologies