1,300 research outputs found

    Shot-noise-driven escape in hysteretic Josephson junctions

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    We have measured the influence of shot noise on hysteretic Josephson junctions initially in macroscopic quantum tunnelling (MQT) regime. Escape threshold current into the resistive state decreases monotonically with increasing average current through the scattering conductor, which is another tunnel junction. Escape is predominantly determined by excitation due to the wide-band shot noise. This process is equivalent to thermal activation (TA) over the barrier at temperatures up to about four times above the critical temperature of the superconductor. The presented TA model is in excellent agreement with the experimental results

    Dispersion, complex analysis and optical spectroscopy: classical theory

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    Mal/SRF Is Dispensable for Cell Proliferation in Drosophila

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    The Mal/SRF transcription factor is regulated by the level of G-actin in cells and has important roles in cell migration and other actin-dependent processes in Drosophila. A recent report suggests that Mal/SRF and an upstream regulator, Pico, are required for cell proliferation and tissue growth in Drosophila. I find otherwise. Mutation of Mal or SRF does not affect cell proliferation in the fly wing. Furthermore, I cannot reproduce the reported effects of Pico RNAi or Pico overexpression on body size. Nevertheless, I can confirm that overexpression of Pico or Mal causes tissue overgrowth specifically in the fly wing - where SRF is most highly expressed. My results indicate that Mal/SRF can promote tissue growth when abnormally active, but is not normally required for tissue growth during development

    Usability Challenges in Smartphone Web Access: A Systematic Literature Review

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    Part 8: International Workshop on Information Engineering and ManagementInternational audienceSystematic literature reviews facilitate methodical understanding of current advances in a field. With the increasing popularity of smartphones, they have become an important means to access the web. Although the literature on this topic is growing in recent times, there has been no effort yet to systematically review it. This paper reports on a systematic literature review of primary studies from 2007 to 2012 that concern mobile web usability. We identify the usability dimensions tested and the testing procedures adopted in the literature. We anticipate that our work will not only help researchers understand the current state of usability testing of mobile web but also identify the areas where further research is needed in addressing the challenges identified

    Chemical composition of atmospheric aerosols between Moscow and Vladivostok

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    International audienceThe TROICA-9 expedition (Trans-Siberian Observations Into the Chemistry of the Atmosphere) was carried out at the Trans-Siberian railway between Moscow and Vladivostok in October 2005. Measurements of aerosol physical and chemical properties were made from an observatory carriage connected to a passenger train. Black carbon (BC) concentrations in fine particles (PM2.5, aerodynamic diameter ?, NO3?, SO42?, Na+, NH4+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, oxalate and methane sulphonate) were measured continuously by using an on-line system with a 15-min time resolution. In addition, particle volume size distributions were determined for particles in the diameter range 3?850 nm using a 10-min. time resolution. The continuous measurements were completed with 24-h. PM2.5 filter samples which were stored in a refrigerator and later analyzed in chemical laboratory. The analyses included mass concentrations of PM2.5, ions, monosaccharide anhydrides (levoglucosan, galactosan and mannosan) and trace elements (Al, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, V and Zn). The mass concentrations of PM2.5 varied in the range of 4.3?34.8 ?g m?3 with an average of 21.6 ?g m?3. Fine particle mass consisted mainly of BC (average 27.6%), SO42? (13.0%), NH4+ (4.1%), and NO3? (1.4%). One of the major constituents was obviously also organic carbon which was not determined. The contribution of BC was high compared with other studies made in Europe and Asia. High concentrations of ions, BC and particle volume were observed between Moscow and roughly 4000 km east of it, as well as close to Vladivostok, primarily due to local anthropogenic sources. In the natural background area between 4000 and 7200 km distance from Moscow, observed concentrations were low, even though there were local particle sources, such as forest fires, that increased occasionally concentrations. The measurements indicated that during forest fire episodes, most of the aerosol mass consisted of organic particulate matter. Concentrations of biomass burning tracers levoglucosan, oxalate and potassium were elevated close to the forest fire areas observed by the MODIS satellite. The polluted air masses from Asia seem to have significant influences on the concentration levels of fine particles over south-eastern Russia