1,590 research outputs found

    Promoting adherence to antiretroviral therapy: the experience from a primary care setting in Khayelitsha, South Africa.

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    OBJECTIVE: To describe the approach used to promote adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) and to present the outcomes in the first primary care public sector ART project in South Africa. DESIGN: The study is a prospective open cohort, including all adult patients naive to previous ART who received antiretroviral treatment in Khayelitsha, from May 2001 to the end of 2002. Patients were followed until their most recent visit before 31 July 2003. METHODS: Plasma viral load was determined at 3, 6, 12, 18 and 24 months after ART was initiated, and CD4 cell counts 6-monthly. Kaplan-Meier estimates were determined for the cumulative proportions of patients surviving, and patients with viral load suppression and viral rebound. RESULTS: A total of 287 patients were initiated on triple therapy. The probability of survival was 86.3% at 24 months. The median CD4 cell count gain was 288 cells/microliters at 24 months. Viral load was less than 400 copies/ml in 89.2, 84.2 and 69.7% of patients at 6, 12 and 24 months, respectively. The cumulative probability of viral rebound (two consecutive HIV-RNA measurements above 400 copies/ml) after achieving an HIV-RNA measurement below 400 copies/ml was 13.2% at 18 months. CONCLUSION: The study shows that, with a standard approach to patient preparation and strategies to enhance adherence, a cohort of patients on ART can be retained in a resource-limited setting in a developing country. A high proportion of patients achieved suppression of viral replication. The subsequent probability of viral rebound was low

    Contribution of distribution network control to voltage stability: A case study

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    A case study dealing with long-term voltage instability in systems hosting active distribution networks (DN) is reported in this paper. It anticipates future situations with high penetration of dispersed generation (DG), where the latter are used to keep distribution voltages within desired limits, in complement to load tap changers. The interactions between transmission and active DN are investigated on a 3108-bus test system. It involves transmission grid, large generators, and 40 DN, each with DG steered by a controller inspired by model predictive control. The reported simulations show the impact of distribution network voltage restoration, as well as the benefit of load voltage reduction actuated by the dispersed generators

    The case for Option B and Optional B+: Ensuring that South Africa’s commitment to eliminating mother-to-child transmission of HIV becomes a reality

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    In a previous issue of the Southern African Journal of HIV Medicine, Pillay and Black summarised the trade-offs of the safety of efavirenz use in pregnancy (Pillay P, Black V. Safety, strength and simplicity of efavirenz in pregnancy. Southern African Journal of HIV Medicine 2012;13(1):28-33.). Highlighting the benefits of the World Health Organization’s proposed options for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV, the authors argued that the South African government should adopt Option B as national PMTCT policy and pilot projects implementing Option B+ as a means of assessing the individual- and population-level effect of the intervention. We echo this call and further propose that the option to remain on lifelong antiretroviral therapy, effectively adopting PMTCT Option B+, be offered to pregnant women following the cessation of breastfeeding, for their own health, following the provision of counselling on associated benefits and risks. Here we highlight the benefits of Options B and B+

    Evaluation of a diagnostic algorithm for smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis in HIV-infected adults

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    Objective: To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of and reduction in diagnostic delay attributable to a clinical algorithm used for the diagnosis of smear-negative pulmonarytuberculosi& (SNPTB) in HfV-infected adults.Design. An algorithm was designed to facilitate clinicoradiological diagnosis of pulmonary TB (PTB) in HIV-infected smear-negative adult patients. A folder review was performed on the first 58 cases referred for empirical TB treatment using this algorithm.Setting. Nolungile HIV Clinic, Site Khayelitsha.Subjects. Subjects included 58 HIV-infected adult patients with suspected PTB consecutively referred to the local TB clinic for outpatient TB treatment using this algorithm between 12 February 2004 and 30 April 2005.Outcome measures. Outcome measures were response of C-reactive protein, haemoglobin, weight and symptoms to TB treatment, and TB culture result. Diagnostic delay On days) was calculated.Results. Thirty-two of the 58 patients (55%) had positive TB cultures (definite TB). Initiation of TB treatment occurred on average 19.5 days before the positive culture report. A further 21 patients (36%) demonstrated clinical improvement on empirical treatment (probable/possible TB). Two did not improve and subsequently died without a definitive diagnosis. Three patients defaulted treatment.Conclusions.SNPTB is more common in HIV-infected patients and leads to diagnostic delay. This algorithm allowed for earlier initiation of TB treatment in HIV-infected patients presenting with symptoms of PTB and negative smears or nonproductive cough in a high TB incidence setting

    Review: Khayelitsha 2001 - 2011: 10 years of primary care HIV and TB programmes

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    Tuberculosis (TB) and HIV care in Khayelitsha, and in South Africa as a whole, has overcome numerous obstacles in the past three decades. This article highlights what has been achieved in Khayelitsha, describes the key clinical programme and policy changes that have supported universal coverage for HIV and TB care over the last 10 years, and outlines the challenges for the next decade

    Knowledge of learning disabilities: the relationship with choice, duty of care and non-aversive approaches

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    The present study examines the relationship between the knowledge of the diagnostic criteria for a learning disability (based on DSM IV criteria), care practices and experience in health care and social care staff. Responses to a questionnaire were analysed in terms of participants emphasis on: recognizing duty of care; enabling choice; non-aversive and aversive strategies. Results indicated that the knowledge of the criteria for a learning disability was limited, with only I6% of the sample correctly identifying all three criteria. There were no significant differences between the two groups in relation to experience or level of knowledge. No clear cut differences were found between the groups in relation to tendency to emphasize a particular management approach, with the strategies adopted appearing to be influenced by vignettes used in this study. Participants tended to give responses that identified both a recognition of their duty of care to clients and the need to enable choice. Limitations of this study are discussed

    Effect of HIV-1 infection on T-Cell-based and skin test detection of tuberculosis infection

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    RATIONALE: Two forms of the IFN-gamma release assay (IFNGRA) to detect tuberculosis infection are available, but neither has been evaluated in comparable HIV-infected and uninfected persons in a high tuberculosis incidence environment. OBJECTIVE: To compare the ability of the T-SPOT.TB (Oxford Immunotec, Abingdon, UK), QuantiFERON-TB Gold (Cellestis, Melbourne, Australia), and Mantoux tests to identify latent tuberculosis in HIV-infected and uninfected persons. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 160 healthy adults without active tuberculosis attending a voluntary counseling and testing center for HIV infection in Khayelitsha, a deprived urban South African community with an HIV antenatal seroprevalence of 33% and a tuberculosis incidence of 1,612 per 100,000. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: One hundred and sixty (74 HIV(+) and 86 HIV(-)) persons were enrolled. A lower proportion of Mantoux results was positive in HIV-infected subjects compared with HIV-uninfected subjects (p < 0.01). By contrast, the proportion of positive IFNGRAs was not significantly different in HIV-infected persons for the T-SPOT.TB test (52 vs. 59%; p = 0.41) or the QuantiFERON-TB Gold test (43 and 46%; p = 0.89). Fair agreement between the Mantoux test (5- and 10-mm cutoffs) and the IFNGRA was seen in HIV-infected people (kappa = 0.52-0.6). By contrast, poor agreement between the Mantoux and QuantiFERON-TB Gold tests was observed in the HIV-uninfected group (kappa = 0.07-0.30, depending on the Mantoux cutoff). The pattern was similar for T-SPOT.TB (kappa = 0.18-0.24). Interpretation: IFNGRA sensitivity appears relatively unimpaired by moderately advanced HIV infection. However, agreement between the tests and with the Mantoux test varied from poor to fair. This highlights the need for prospective studies to determine which test may predict the subsequent risk of tuberculosis
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