35 research outputs found

    Acute Myloid Leukemia and purinergic signaling: development of innovative therapies

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    I nucleotidi trifosfato sono, dal punto di vista evoluzionistico, tra le molecole più antiche e conservate tra le specie. Oltre al ruolo che ricoprono nella sintesi degli acidi nucleici e nel metabolismo energetico della cellula, negli ultimi anni è emerso sempre di più il loro coinvolgimento nella regolazione di numerose funzioni cellulari. Questi importanti mediatori cellulari sono presenti nel microambiente e cambiamenti nella loro concentrazione extracellulare possono modulare la funzionalità cellulare. I nucleotidi trifosfato ATP e UTP, presenti nel microambiente midollare, sono dei potenti stimolatori dei progenitori emopoietici. Essi stimolano la proliferazione e l’attecchimento delle cellule staminali emopoietiche, così come la loro capacità migratoria, attraverso l’attivazione di specifici recettori di membrana, i recettori purinergici (P2R). In questo studio abbiamo dimostrato che ATP e UTP esercitano un effetto opposto sul compartimento staminale leucemico di leucemia acuta mieloide (LAM). Abbiamo dimostrato che le cellule leucemiche esprimono i recettori P2 funzionalmente attivi. Studi di microarray hanno evidenziato che, a differenza di ciò che avviene nelle CD34+, la stimolazione di cellule leucemiche con ATP induce la down-regolazione dei geni coinvolti nella proliferazione e nella migrazione, mentre up-regola geni inibitori del ciclo cellulare. Abbiamo poi confermato a livello funzionale, mediante test in vitro, gli effetti osservati a livello molecolare. Studi di inibizione farmacologica, ci hanno permesso di capire che l’attività inibitoria dell’ATP sulla proliferazione si esplica attraverso l’attivazione del recettore P2X7, mentre i sottotipi recettoriali P2 prevalentemente coinvolti nella regolazione della migrazione sono i recettori P2Y2 e P2Y4. Esperimenti di xenotrapianto, hanno evidenziato che l’esposizione ad ATP e UTP sia dei blasti leucemici sia delle cellule staminali leucemiche CD38-CD34+ diminuisce la loro capacità di homing e di engraftment in vivo. Inoltre, il trattamento farmacologico con ATP, di topi ai quali è stata indotta una leucemia umana, ha diminuito lo sviluppo della leucemia in vivo.Extracellular adenosine-triphosphate (ATP) and uridine-triphosphate (UTP) nucleotides increase the proliferation and engraftment potential of normal human hematopoietic stem cells via the engagement of purinergic receptors (P2Rs). Here, we show that ATP or UTP have strikingly opposite effects on human acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML) cells. Leukemic cells express P2Rs. ATP-stimulated leukemic cells, but not normal CD34+ cells, undergo down-regulation of genes involved in cell proliferation and migration whereas cell cycle inhibitors are up-regulated. Functionally, ATP induced the inhibition of proliferation and accumulation of AML cells, but not of normal cells, in the G0 phase of cell cycle. Exposure to ATP or UTP inhibited AML cell migration in vitro. In vivo, xenotransplant experiments demonstrated that the homing and the engraftment capacity of AML blasts and CD34+CD38- cells to immunodeficient mice bone marrow was significantly inhibited by pre-treatment with nucleotides. P2Rs expression analysis and pharmacological profile suggest that the inhibition of proliferation by ATP was mediated by the down-regulation of the P2X7R, which is up-regulated on untreated blasts, while the inhibition of chemotaxis was mainly mediated via P2Y2R and P2Y4R subtypes. Thus, conversely to normal cells, P2Rs signaling inhibits leukemic cells and its pharmacologic modulation may represent a novel therapeutic strategy

    Obesity May Accelerate the Aging Process

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    Lines of evidence from several studies have shown that increases in life expectancy are now accompanied by increased disability rate. The expanded lifespan of the aging population imposes a challenge on the continuous increase of chronic disease. The prevalence of overweight and obesity is increasing at an alarming rate in many parts of the world. Further to increasing the onset of metabolic imbalances, obesity leads to reduced life span and affects cellular and molecular processes in a fashion resembling aging. Nine key hallmarks of the aging process have been proposed. In this review, we will review these hallmarks and discuss pathophysiological changes that occur with obesity, that are similar to or contribute to those that occur during aging. We present and discuss the idea that obesity, in addition to having disease-specific effects, may accelerate the rate of aging affecting all aspects of physiology and thus shortening life span and health span

    The tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1) promotes survival and migration of acute myeloid leukemia cells through CD63/PI3K/Akt/p21 signaling

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    We and others have shown that the Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1), a member of the inflammatory network exerting pleiotropic effects in the bone marrow (BM) microenvironment, regulates the survival and proliferation of different cell types, including normal hematopoietic progenitor cells. Moreover, TIMP-1 has been shown to be involved in cancer progression. However, its role in leukemic microenvironment has not been addressed. Here, we investigated the activity of TIMP-1 on Acute Myelogenous Leukemia (AML) cell functions. First, we found that TIMP-1 levels were increased in the BM plasma of AML patients at diagnosis. In vitro, recombinant human (rh)TIMP-1 promoted the survival and cell cycle S-phase entry of AML cells. These kinetic effects were related to the downregulation of cyclindependent kinase inhibitor p21. rhTIMP-1 increases CXCL12-driven migration of leukemic cells through PI3K signaling. Interestingly, activation of CD63 receptor was required for TIMP-1's cytokine/chemokine activity. Of note, rhTIMP-1 stimulation modulated mRNA expression of Hypoxia Inducible Factor (HIF)-1a, downstream of PI3K/Akt activation. We then co-cultured AML cells with normal or leukemic mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) to investigate the interaction of TIMP-1 with cellular component(s) of BM microenvironment. Our results showed that the proliferation and migration of leukemic cells were greatly enhanced by rhTIMP-1 in presence of AML-MSCs as compared to normal MSCs. Thus, we demonstrated that TIMP-1 modulates leukemic blasts survival, migration and function via CD63/PI3K/ Akt/p21 signaling. As a "bad actor" in a "bad soil", we propose TIMP-1 as a potential novel therapeutic target in leukemic BM microenvironment

    Denatonium as a Bitter Taste Receptor Agonist Modifies Transcriptomic Profile and Functions of Acute Myeloid Leukemia Cells

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    The contribution of cell-extrinsic factors in Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) generation and persistence has gained interest. Bitter taste receptors (TAS2Rs) are G protein-coupled receptors known for their primary role as a central warning signal to induce aversion toward noxious or harmful substances. Nevertheless, the increasing amount of evidence about their extra-oral localization has suggested a wider function in sensing microenvironment, also in cancer settings. In this study, we found that AML cells express functional TAS2Rs. We also highlighted a significant association between the modulation of some TAS2Rs and the poor-prognosis AML groups, i.e., TP53- and TET2-mutated, supporting a potential role of TAS2Rs in AML cell biology. Gene expression profile analysis showed that TAS2R activation with the prototypical agonist, denatonium benzoate, significantly modulated a number of genes involved in relevant AML cellular processes. Functional assay substantiated molecular data and indicated that denatonium reduced AML cell proliferation by inducing cell cycle arrest in G0/G1 phase or induced apoptosis via caspase cascade activation. Moreover, denatonium exposure impaired AML cell motility and migratory capacity, and inhibited cellular respiration by decreasing glucose uptake and oxidative phosphorylation. In conclusion, our results in AML cells expand the observation of cancer TAS2R expression to the setting of hematological neoplasms and shed light on a role of TAS2Rs in the extrinsic regulation of leukemia cell functions

    Phospholipase C Beta1 (PI-PLCbeta1)/Cyclin D3/protein Kinase C (PKC) Alpha Signaling Modulation During Iron-Induced Oxidative Stress in Myelodysplastic Syndromes (MDS)

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    MDS are characterized by anemia and transfusion requirements. Transfused patients frequently show iron overload that negatively affects hematopoiesis. Iron chelation therapy can be effective in these MDS cases, but the molecular consequences of this treatment need to be further investigated. That is why we studied the molecular features of iron effect and Deferasirox therapy on PI-PLCbeta1 inositide signaling, using hematopoietic cells and MDS samples. At baseline, MDS patients showing a positive response after iron chelation therapy displayed higher levels of PI-PLCbeta1/Cyclin D3/PKCalpha expression. During treatment, these responder patients, as well as hematopoietic cells treated with FeCl(3)and Deferasirox, showed a specific reduction of PI-PLCbeta1/Cyclin D3/PKCalpha expression, indicating that this signaling pathway is targeted by Deferasirox. The treatment was also able to specifically decrease the production of ROS. This effect correlated with a reduction of IL-1A and IL-2, as well as Akt/mTOR phosphorylation. In contrast, cells exposed only to FeCl(3)and cells from MDS patients refractory to Deferasirox showed a specific increase of ROS and PI-PLCbeta1/Cyclin D3/PKCalpha expression. All in all, our data show that PI-PLCbeta1 signaling is a target for iron-induced oxidative stress and suggest that baseline PI-PLCbeta1 quantification could predict iron chelation therapy response in MDS

    Electrochemical Removal of Humic Acids from Water Using Aluminum Anode: Influence of Chloride Ion and Current Parameters

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    The removal by electrochemical treatment in batch of humic acids (HA) extracted from leonardite has been analyzed using aluminum electrodes at 25°C and neutral pH, under galvanostatic conditions. HA removal, inferred from UV-Vis spectra and total organic carbon determination, occurred within few minutes of treatment under the experimental conditions tested, and no electrode passivation was observed. The removal rate increased with NaCl concentration and electric current density. Our data indicate that energy consumption per unit weight of HA removed can be significantly reduced by operating at low current density under galvanostatic conditions and/or high salt concentration, thus confirming electrochemical treatment as a powerful technology for wastewater treatment