12 research outputs found

    Effect of <i>S</i>. <i>boulardii</i> CNCM I-745 supplementation on mice.

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    <p>Panel A: Representative images of colons and ileum sections stained with hematoxylin/eosin. Panel B: body weights from 6 weeks after the IG inoculum. Panel C: daily food intake of mice from week 6 after IG inoculum. n = 8 mice per group. One way ANOVA and Bonferroni post-hoc test were employed to compare body weight and food intake. F(3,28) = 0.69, <i>p</i>>0.05.</p

    Effects of <i>S</i>. <i>boulardii</i> CNCM I-745 on ileal contractility impairment induced by HSV-1.

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    <p>Panel A: Carbachol-elicited contractions in ileum segments (n = 6–8 per group). Panel B: EFS-elicited contractions in ileum segments (n = 6−8 per group). One way ANOVA and Newman–Keuls <i>post hoc</i> test were employed to compare the extension of induced contractions between groups. * denotes <i>p</i><0.01 versus control mice.</p

    Scheme for the experimental course of the <i>S</i>. <i>boulardii</i> CNCM I-745 supplementation in HSV-1 infected mice.

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    <p>Mice were intranasally (IN) inoculated with Vero cell lysate (vehicle) or HSV-1 (10<sup>2</sup> PFU). After 4 weeks, mice received an intragastric inoculum (IG) of Vero cell lysate (vehicle) or HSV-1 (10<sup>8</sup> PFU). Mice were randomly allocated to receive 100 μL of either phosphate buffered saline (vehicle) or <i>S</i>. <i>boulardii</i> CNCM I-745 by daily oral gavage starting 4 weeks after IG viral inoculum. Animals were sacrificed 10 weeks after IG viral inoculum. n = 8 mice for each experimental group.</p

    Effects of <i>S</i>. <i>boulardii</i> CNCM I-745 on gastrointestinal dysmotility induced by HSV-1 infection.

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    <p>Panel A: Relative distribution of non-absorbable FITC-labelled dextran probe in the intestine (geometric center, n = 8 per group). ° denotes <i>p</i><0.02 versus control mice; Panel B: Expulsion time (seconds) for a glass bead inserted into the rectum. * denotes <i>p</i><0.05 versus control mice; Panel C: Water content of the fecal pellets expulsed for 1 hour (n = 8 each group). * denotes <i>p</i><0.05 versus control mice. For all the groups ANOVA gave an F value which is statistically significant with degrees of freedom.</p

    Effects of <i>S</i>. <i>boulardii</i> CNCM I-745 supplementation on HSV-1-induced neuroplasticity in the enteric nervous system.

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    <p>Panel A: Immunofluorescence analysis for neurofilament peripherin, neurotubules βIII-tubulin, glial marker S-100β, and neuropeptide substance P (SP). Scale bars 75 μm. Panel B: S100β positive cells per mm<sup>2</sup> were quantified. Panel C: Western blot analysis of peripherin, S-100β, and nNOS in protein extracts from LMMP. β-actin was used as a loading control. Panel D: Protein amount was quantified by densitometry analysis. One way ANOVA and Bonferroni <i>post hoc</i> test were employed to compare number of S100β positive cells in Panel B and amounts of proteins in Panel D. In Panel B, * denotes F(3,28) = 10.88, <i>p</i>< 0.01 compared to control. In Panel D, ANOVA gave an F value which is statistically significant with degrees of freedom for all the groups; * denotes <i>p</i>< 0.05 compared to control.</p

    Effects of <i>S</i>. <i>boulardii</i> CNCM I-745 on HSV-1-induced inflammation in the longitudinal muscle layer with the adherent myenteric plexus (LMMP).

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    <p>TNF-α (Panel A), IL-1β (Panel B), IL-10 (Panel C), and IL-4 (panel D) quantified by ELISA. Cytokine levels were expressed as pg/mL of tissue lysate. One way ANOVA and Bonferroni <i>post hoc</i> test were employed to compare the levels of cytokines between groups. In Panel A, F(3,28) = 37.25, * denotes <i>p</i><0.05 versus control mice; in Panel B, F(3,28) = 27.18, ° denotes <i>p</i> = 0.02 versus control mice; in Panel C, F(3,28) = 16.73, * denotes <i>p</i><0.05 versus control mice; in Panel D, F(3,28) = 28.42, ° denotes <i>p</i> = 0.02 versus control mice.</p

    Double-staining immunohistochemistry showing the distribution of P2X7 receptors (green) and the neuronal marker HuC/D (red) in the myenteric plexus of colonic cryosections from control (A; normal) or DNBS-treated (B; colitis) rats.

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    <p>Nuclei were stained with TOTO-3. Scale bar: 21 µm. Enlarged view of HuC/D<sup>+</sup> and P2X7<sup>+</sup> cells in the myenteric ganglia of normal and colitis rats from boxed area in overlay (scale bar = 10 µm). LM, longitudinal muscle; CM, circular muscle; MG, myenteric ganglia. Isotype fluorescent image was obtained by labeling with streptavidin conjugated with Alexa Fluor 555 in presence of normal mouse antiserum instead of the primary antibody.</p

    Double immunostaining showing the expression of P2X7 receptors (green) and the glial marker GFAP (red) in myenteric plexus of colonic cryosections from control (A; normal) and DNBS-treated (B; colitis) rats.

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    <p>Nuclei were stained with TOTO-3. Scale bar: 21 µm. Enlarged view of GFAP<sup>+</sup> and P2X7<sup>+</sup> cells in the myenteric ganglia of normal and colitis rats from boxed area in overlay (scale bar = 10 µm). LM, longitudinal muscle; CM, circular muscle; MG, myenteric ganglia. Isotype fluorescent image was obtained by labeling with Alexa Fluor 555 conjugated secondary antibody in presence of normal mouse antiserum instead of the primary antibody.</p
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