383 research outputs found

    Updating flood annual maxima in Southern Italy

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    Recent studies have highlighted concerns about the impact of climate change on the hydrological cycle and extremes. Analysis of long hydrological series or modeled data in Europe has revealed conflicting trends. The lack of continuous observations and significant alterations in some watersheds pose challenges for quantifying the effects of climate change, particularly in Southern Italy. The objective of this study is to update flood time-series in Southern Italy from 1920 to 2021 using direct and indirect measurements. Missing data were reconstructed using specific flood rating curves or daily flow rates to estimate equivalent flood peaks. The resulting series were analyzed using the nonparametric Mann-Kendall test to provide a preliminary description on flood trends in Southern Italy over the past 50 years

    Structured reporting of computed tomography in the polytrauma patient assessment. A Delphi consensus proposal

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    Objectives: To develop a structured reporting (SR) template for whole-body CT examinations of polytrauma patients, based on the consensus of a panel of emergency radiology experts from the Italian Society of Medical and Interventional Radiology. Methods: A multi-round Delphi method was used to quantify inter-panelist agreement for all SR sections. Internal consistency for each section and quality analysis in terms of average inter-item correlation were evaluated by means of the Cronbach’s alpha (Cα) correlation coefficient. Results: The final SR form included 118 items (6 in the “Patient Clinical Data” section, 4 in the “Clinical Evaluation” section, 9 in the “Imaging Protocol” section, and 99 in the “Report” section). The experts’ overall mean score and sum of scores were 4.77 (range 1–5) and 257.56 (range 206–270) in the first Delphi round, and 4.96 (range 4–5) and 208.44 (range 200–210) in the second round, respectively. In the second Delphi round, the experts’ overall mean score was higher than in the first round, and standard deviation was lower (3.11 in the second round vs 19.71 in the first round), reflecting a higher expert agreement in the second round. Moreover, Cα was higher in the second round than in the first round (0.97 vs 0.87). Conclusions: Our SR template for whole-body CT examinations of polytrauma patients is based on a strong agreement among panel experts in emergency radiology and could improve communication between radiologists and the trauma team

    Qualitative evaluation of MR images for assessing placenta accreta spectrum disorders in patients with placenta previa: A pilot validation study

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    Purpose: To validate a qualitative imaging method using magnetic resonance (MR) for predicting placental accreta spectrum (PAS) in patients with placenta previa (PP). Method: Two MR imaging methods built in our previous experience was tested in an external comparable group of sixty-five patients with PP; these methods consisted of presence of at least one (Method 1) or two (Method 2) of the following abnormal MR imaging signs: intraplacental dark bands, focal interruption of myometrial border and abnormal placental vascularity. Three groups of radiologists with different level of expertise evaluated MR images: at least 5 years of experience in body imaging (Group 1); at least 10 (Group 2) or 20 (Group 3) years of experience in genito-urinary MR. While radiologists of Group 1 routinely evaluated MR images, those of Groups 2 and 3 used both Methods 1 and 2. Results: A significant (p < 0.005) difference was found between the diagnostic accuracy values of imaging evaluation performed by Group 3 using Method 1 (63%) and Method 2 (89%); of note, the accuracy of Method 2 by Group 3 was also significantly (p < 0.005) higher compared to that of both Methods 1 (46%) and 2 (63%) by Group 2 as well as to that of the routine evaluation by Group 1 (60%). Conclusions: The qualitative identification of at least two abnormal MR signs (Method 2) represents an accurate method for predicting PAS in patients with PP particularly when this method was used by more experienced radiologists; thus, imaging expertise and methodology is required for this purpose

    Parenting practices and dysregulation profile in a sample of Italian children

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    Background: emotional dysregulation is a transdiagnostic factor linked to a heightened risk for psychopathology. A dysregulation profile (DP) derived from the Strenght and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) is often used to indirectly assess emotional dysregulation in children and adolescents. Theoretical models account for parenting as a causal and maintaining factor for emotional dysregulation. Notwithstanding, empirical data are scant. Methods: 547 students (47.5% males) aged between 9 and 11 years of age (mean age = 9.66, SD = 0.64) were assessed with the SDQ-DP (teacher and parent-reported) and their parents self-reported on their own parenting practices with the Alabama Parenting Questionnaire. Results: as expected, SDQ-DP teacher-rated was positively associated with maternal and paternal negative parenting practices; SDQ-DP mother and father-rated were both negatively associated with maternal and paternal positive parenting and positively associated with maternal and paternal negative parenting practices. Limitation: the age range is limited to pre-adolescents. The cross-sectional nature of the study precludes inferences on causality. Conclusions: youth's emotional dysregulation is linked to parenting practices. These findings support the need to include families in the intervention for emotionally dysregulated youths

    Towards quantum 3d imaging devices

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    We review the advancement of the research toward the design and implementation of quantum plenoptic cameras, radically novel 3D imaging devices that exploit both momentum–position entanglement and photon–number correlations to provide the typical refocusing and ultra-fast, scanning-free, 3D imaging capability of plenoptic devices, along with dramatically enhanced performances, unattainable in standard plenoptic cameras: diffraction-limited resolution, large depth of focus, and ultra-low noise. To further increase the volumetric resolution beyond the Rayleigh diffraction limit, and achieve the quantum limit, we are also developing dedicated protocols based on quantum Fisher information. However, for the quantum advantages of the proposed devices to be effective and appealing to end-users, two main challenges need to be tackled. First, due to the large number of frames required for correlation measurements to provide an acceptable signal-to-noise ratio, quantum plenoptic imaging (QPI) would require, if implemented with commercially available high-resolution cameras, acquisition times ranging from tens of seconds to a few minutes. Second, the elaboration of this large amount of data, in order to retrieve 3D images or refocusing 2D images, requires high-performance and time-consuming computation. To address these challenges, we are developing high-resolution single-photon avalanche photodiode (SPAD) arrays and high-performance low-level programming of ultra-fast electronics, combined with compressive sensing and quantum tomography algorithms, with the aim to reduce both the acquisition and the elaboration time by two orders of magnitude. Routes toward exploitation of the QPI devices will also be discussed

    Performance of the model for end-stage liver disease score for mortality prediction and the potential role of etiology

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    Background &amp; Aims: Although the discriminative ability of the model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score is generally considered acceptable, its calibration is still unclear. In a validation study, we assessed the discriminative performance and calibration of 3 versions of the model: original MELD-TIPS, used to predict survival after transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS); classic MELD-Mayo; and MELD-UNOS, used by the United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS). We also explored recalibrating and updating the model. Methods: In total, 776 patients who underwent elective TIPS (TIPS cohort) and 445 unselected patients (non-TIPS cohort) were included. Three, 6 and 12-month mortality predictions were calculated by the 3 MELD versions: discrimination was assessed by c-statistics and calibration by comparing deciles of predicted and observed risks. Cox and Fine and Grey models were used for recalibration and prognostic analyses. Results: In the TIPS/non-TIPS cohorts, the etiology of liver disease was viral in 402/188, alcoholic in 185/130, and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis in 65/33; mean follow-up±SD was 25±9/19±21 months; and the number of deaths at 3-6-12 months was 57-102-142/31-47-99, respectively. C-statistics ranged from 0.66 to 0.72 in TIPS and 0.66 to 0.76 in non-TIPS cohorts across prediction times and scores. A post hoc analysis revealed worse c-statistics in non-viral cirrhosis with more pronounced and significant worsening in the non-TIPS cohort. Calibration was acceptable with MELD-TIPS but largely unsatisfactory with MELD-Mayo and -UNOS whose performance improved much after recalibration. A prognostic analysis showed that age, albumin, and TIPS indication might be used to update the MELD. Conclusions: In this validation study, the performance of the MELD score was largely unsatisfactory, particularly in non-viral cirrhosis. MELD recalibration and candidate variables for an update to the MELD score are proposed. Lay summary: While the discriminative performance of the model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score is credited to be fair to good, its calibration, the correspondence of observed to predicted mortality, is still unsettled. We found that application of 3 different versions of the MELD in 2 independent cirrhosis cohorts yielded largely imprecise mortality predictions particularly in non-viral cirrhosis. Thus, we propose a recalibration and suggest candidate variables for an update to the model
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