127 research outputs found

    Microbes and Persistent Organic Pollutants in the Marine Environment

    Get PDF
    Marine pollution has increased reaching the entire marine environment, from the surface to the deepest sediment, and has become more concerning in the last 70 years. Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are a fraction of ocean waste that includes, among the others, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and plastic polymers. These chemicals have an extremely long half-life, and (bio)accumulate and damage the marine flora and fauna, and, ultimately, human health. Some organisms have evolved enzymes to attack POPs in the environment and transform them into biomass and CO2. Several microorganisms degrade many POPs in relatively short time. A wide variety of bacteria has been isolated with different techniques, and key catabolic enzymes used to degrade the most persistent oil hydrocarbon fractions have been identified. For plastic waste, there is less evidence of microbial degradation, but a few recent studies are revealing that a biodegradation potential exists for some of the most recalcitrant plastic polymers as well. The scientific community is focusing on microorganisms and their enzymes for POP uptake and removal from the environment, while searching novel biopolymers (also from microbiological origin) to substitute oil-derived plastics

    Advanced radar-interpretation of InSAR time series for mapping and characterization of geological processes

    Get PDF
    We present a new post-processing methodology for the analysis of InSAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry) multi-temporal measures, based on the temporal under-sampling of displacement time series, the identification of potential changes occurring during the monitoring period and, eventually, the classification of different deformation behaviours. The potentials of this approach for the analysis of geological processes were tested on the case study of Naro (Italy), specifically selected due to its geological setting and related ground instability of unknown causes that occurred in February 2005. The time series analysis of past (ERS1/2 descending data; 1992–2000) and current (RADARSAT-1 ascending data; 2003–2007) ground movements highlighted significant displacement rates (up to 6 mm yr<sup>−1</sup>) in 2003–2007, followed by a post-event stabilization. The deformational behaviours of instable areas involved in the 2005 event were also detected, clarifying typology and kinematics of ground instability. The urban sectors affected and unaffected by the event were finally mapped, consequently re-defining and enlarging the influenced area previously detected by field observations. Through the integration of InSAR data and conventional field surveys (i.e. geological, geomorphologic and geostructural campaigns), the causes of instability were finally attributed to tectonics

    Ground instability in the old town of Agrigento (Italy) depicted by on-site investigations and Persistent Scatterers data

    Get PDF
    We combine on-site investigations with the interpretation of satellite Persistent Scatterers (PS) to analyse ground instability in the historic town of Agrigento, Italy. Geological and geomorphologic surveys, together with geostructural and kinematic analyses, depict the deformational patterns of the northwestern sector of the town, previously documented by extensive literature available for the neighbouring Valley of the Temples. The geological and geomorphologic maps are reconstructed by combining bibliographic studies, field surveys and aerial stereo-interpretation. ERS-1/2 PS data reveal deformation velocities up to 18–20 mm yr<sup>−1</sup> in 1992–2000 over the Addolorata landslide, and a sudden motion of 1.6 cm over the Bishop's Seminary in 1999. RADARSAT-1 PS data highlight velocities of 3.0 mm yr<sup>−1</sup> for St. Gerlando's Cathedral and reveals worsening of its structural instability since 2006. Ground instability of the town is controlled by low quality and high fracturing of the Agrigento formation rock masses, and the remarkable contrast between different mechanical behaviours of its calcarenite (brittle), silt and clay (plastic) facies. Slow landslides and widespread erosion are also recognised in the clays of the underlying Monte Narbone formation. Coexistence of these factors induces progressive retrogression of the edge of the Girgenti hill and damages the overlying historic buildings, whose stability and safe accessibility are nowadays almost compromised

    Prognostic significance of tyrosinase expression in sentinel lymph node biopsy for ultra-thin, thin, and thick melanomas

    Get PDF
    Abstract. – BACKGROUND: Investigate if the tyrosinase mRNA expression may be predictive of the outcome on ultra-thin, thin, and thick melanoma patients. AIM: In our study, we sought to correlate tyrosinase mRNA expression to the outcome in a group of 71 patients with thick, thin and ultra-thin melanomas. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 71 patients with melanomas underwent a SLNB (sentinel lymph node biopsy) at the “Sapienza” University of Rome. Among these, 38 patients had thin melanomas, while the other 33 patients had thick melanomas. In every patient’s sample histology, immunohistochemistry and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was completed. We then correlated tyrosinase mRNA expression to the statistical analysis of the outcome of patients. RESULTS: Positivity of histology was found in one patient (1.4%), immunohistochemistry in five patients (7%), and tyrosinase in 52/71 (73.2%). Thickness and tyrosinase positivity were predictive for disease progression (p < 0.05). The median follow-up was 58.24 months. There were recurrences and/or deaths in both groups of patients. CONCLUSIONS: Nodal metastasis in melanoma is uncommon, especially in patients with thin melanomas. In this study, histology and immunohistochemistry were found to be non predictive for the risk of nodal metastases, while instead, tyrosinase m-RNA expression appeared to play a role in highlighting those patients with a risk of disease progression. Moreover, no differences among the thin melanoma groups of patients (0.30-0.75 mm and 0.76-1.00 mm) were observed

    Landslide mapping and monitoring by using radar and optical remote sensing: examples from the EC-FP7 project SAFER

    Get PDF
    This paper focuses on the Landslide Thematic services of the EU-funded FP7-SPACE project SAFER (Services and Applications For Emergency Response) for inventory mapping, monitoring and rapid mapping by using Earth Observation (EO). We exploited satellite Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) and Object-Based Image Analysis (OBIA), and discuss example applications in South Tyrol and Abruzzo (Italy), Lower Austria (Austria), Lubietova (Slovakia) and the Kaohsiung County (Taiwan). These case studies showcase the significance of radar and optical EO data, InSAR and OBIA methods for landslide mapping and monitoring in different geological environments and during all phases of emergency management: mitigation, preparedness, crisis and recovery

    ABCB5 in peripheral blood of a patient affected by multiple primary malignancies

    No full text
    La sindrome da neoplasie multiple ù caratterizzata dall’insorgenza di diversi tumori in maniera sincroma in un organismo. Il caso da noi riportato ha evidenziato la presenza di sei diverse neoplasie primarie nell’arco di quattro anni. Il paziente ù stato affetto da adenocarcinoma prostatico, carcinoma duttale mammario, linfoma (CD 20+), due melanomi indipendenti e un basalioma. È stata, quindi, effettuata la ricerca di marker di staminalità nel sangue periferico e nei linfonodi sentinella, dimostrando la presenza del recettore ABCB5, tipico del melanoma

    Metatypical carcinoma. A review of 327 cases

    No full text
    INTRODUCTION: Metatypical cell carcinoma is a quite rare malignancy (5% of all non melanoma skin cancers), with features of basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma. It is described as coexistence of basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma with no transition zone between them. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a retrospective study of 327 consecutive patients, diagnosed for metatypical carcinoma. Statistical analysis was made to determinate most affected areas, gender prevalence, average age, presence of ulceration and infiltration, peripheral clearance rate. RESULTS: A relevant difference came out between two genders. X2 test emphasized a relation between females and the presence of carcinoma on the scalp. In addition a strong correlation between mixed subtype and ulceration was evident. A strong relation between intermediate subtype and positive surgical margin was found; this data could identify a more aggressive behavior of intermediate type. DISCUSSION: Differently from melanoma that usually arises on sun exposed areas, no relation was found between sun exposion and this tumor. This characteristic stresses on the importance of other risks factor apart from sun exposition. CONCLUSIONS: We identify some correlation between our data that cannot be explained with previous interpretation of sun exposition

    Metatypical carcinoma. A review of 327 cases.

    No full text
    INTRODUCTION: Metatypical cell carcinoma is a quite rare malignancy (5% of all non melanoma skin cancers), with features of basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma. It is described as coexistence of basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma with no transition zone between them. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a retrospective study of 327 consecutive patients, diagnosed for metatypical carcinoma. Statistical analysis was made to determinate most affected areas, gender prevalence, average age, presence of ulceration and infiltration, peripheral clearance rate. RESULTS: A relevant difference came out between two genders. X2 test emphasized a relation between females and the presence of carcinoma on the scalp. In addition a strong correlation between mixed subtype and ulceration was evident. A strong relation between intermediate subtype and positive surgical margin was found; this data could identify a more aggressive behavior of intermediate type. DISCUSSION: Differently from melanoma that usually arises on sun exposed areas, no relation was found between sun exposion and this tumor. This characteristic stresses on the importance of other risks factor apart from sun exposition. CONCLUSIONS: We identify some correlation between our data that cannot be explained with previous interpretation of sun exposition
    • 

    corecore