644 research outputs found

    Editorial: Mitochondria, metabolism and cardiovascular diseases

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    β-Adrenergic Receptor-PI3K Signaling Crosstalk in Mouse Heart: Elucidation of Immediate Downstream Signaling Cascades

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    Sustained β-adrenergic receptors (βAR) activation leads to cardiac hypertrophy and prevents left ventricular (LV) atrophy during LV unloading. The immediate signaling pathways downstream from βAR stimulation, however, have not been well investigated. The current study was to examine the early cardiac signaling mechanism(s) following βAR stimulation. In adult C57BL/6 mice, acute βAR stimulation induced significant increases in PI3K activity and activation of Akt and ERK1/2 in the heart, but not in lungs or livers. In contrast, the same treatment did not elicit these changes in β1/β2AR double knockout mice. We further showed the specificity of β2AR in this crosstalk as treatment with formoterol, a β2AR-selective agonist, but not dobutamine, a predominantly β1AR agonist, activated cardiac Akt and ERK1/2. Acute βAR stimulation also significantly increased the phosphorylation of mTOR (the mammalian target of rapamycin), P70S6K, ribosomal protein S6, GSK-3α/β (glycogen synthase kinase-3α/β), and FOXO1/3a (the forkhead box family of transcription factors 1 and 3a). Moreover, acute βAR stimulation time-dependently decreased the mRNA levels of the muscle-specific E3 ligases atrogin-1 and muscle ring finger protein-1 (MuRF1) in mouse heart. Our results indicate that acute βAR stimulation in vivo affects multiple cardiac signaling cascades, including the PI3K signaling pathway, ERK1/2, atrogin-1 and MuRF1. These data 1) provide convincing evidence for the crosstalk between βAR and PI3K signaling pathways; 2) confirm the β2AR specificity in this crosstalk in vivo; and 3) identify novel signaling factors involved in cardiac hypertrophy and LV unloading. Understanding of the intricate interplay between β2AR activation and these signaling cascades should provide critical clues to the pathogenesis of cardiac hypertrophy and enable identification of targets for early clinical interaction of cardiac lesions

    Embracing Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion in the Scientific Community-Viewpoints of the Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion Committee of the North American Vascular Biology Organization

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    Recent increased visibility on racial issues in the United States elicited public outcry and a collective call for action. The social justice movement has facilitated energetic discussions about race, sexual orientation, and various issues of diversity, equity, and inclusion. This article discusses issues faced by people of color that we as scientists can address, as well as challenges faced by women and internationally trained scientists in the scientific community that need immediate attention. Moreover, we highlight various ways to resolve such issues at both institutional and individual levels. Silence and incremental solutions are no longer acceptable to achieving lasting social justice and ensure prosperous societies that work for all

    Direct Sensing of Endothelial Oxidants by Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2 and c-Src

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    BACKGROUND: ADPH oxidase-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) play important roles in redox homeostasis and signal transduction in endothelial cells (ECs). We previously demonstrated that c-Src plays a key role in VEGF-induced, ROS-dependent selective activation of PI3K-Akt but not PLCγ-1-ERK1/2 signaling pathways. The aim of the present study was to understand how VEGFR-2-c-Src signaling axis 'senses' NADPH oxidase-derived ROS levels and couples VEGF activation of c-Src to the redox state of ECs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using biotinylated probe that detects oxidation of cysteine thiol (cys-OH) in intracellular proteins, we demonstrate that VEGF induced oxidative modification in c-Src and VEGFR-2, and that reduction in ROS levels using siRNA against p47(phox) subunit of Rac1-dependent NADPH oxidase inhibited this phenomenon. Co-immunoprecipitation studies using human coronary artery ECs (HCAEC) showed that VEGF-induced ROS-dependent interaction between VEGFR-2 and c-Src correlated with their thiol oxidation status. Immunofluorescence studies using antibodies against internalized VEGFR-2 and c-Src demonstrated that VEGF-induced subcellular co-localization of these tyrosine kinases were also dependent on NADPH oxidsase-derived ROS. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: These results demonstrate that VEGF induces cysteine oxidation in VEGFR-2 and c-Src in an NADPH oxidase-derived ROS-dependent manner, suggesting that VEGFR-2 and c-Src can 'sense' redox levels in ECs. The data also suggest that thiol oxidation status of VEGFR-2 and c-Src correlates with their ability to physically interact with each other and c-Src activation. Taken together, these findings suggest that prior to activating downstream c-Src-PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, VEGFR-2-c-Src axis requires an NADPH oxidase-derived ROS threshold in ECs

    MicroRNA regulation of endothelial homeostasis and commitment—implications for vascular regeneration strategies using stem cell therapies

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    Human embryonic (hESC) and induced pluripotent (hiPSC) stem cells have broad therapeutic potential in the treatment of a range of diseases, including those of the vascular system. Both hESCs and hiPSCs have the capacity for indefinite self-renewal, in addition to their ability to differentiate into any adult cell type. These cells could provide a potentially unlimited source of cells for transplantation and, therefore, provide novel treatments, e.g. in the production of endothelial cells for vascular regeneration. MicroRNAs are short, noncoding RNAs that act posttranscriptionally to control gene expression and thereby exert influence over a wide range of cellular processes, including maintenance of pluripotency and differentiation. Expression patterns of these small RNAs are tissue specific, and changes in microRNA levels have often been associated with disease states in humans, including vascular pathologies. Here, we review the roles of microRNAs in endothelial cell function and vascular disease, as well as their role in the differentiation of pluripotent stem cells to the vascular endothelial lineage. Furthermore, we discuss the therapeutic potential of stem cells and how knowledge and manipulation of microRNAs in stem cells may enhance their capacity for vascular regeneration

    Expression of NAD(P)H Oxidase Subunits and Their Contribution to Cardiovascular Damage in Aldosterone/Salt-Induced Hypertensive Rat

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    NAD(P)H oxidase plays an important role in hypertension and its complication in aldosterone-salt rat. We questioned whether NAD(P)H oxidase subunit expression and activity are modulated by aldosterone and whether this is associated with target-organ damage. Rats were infused with aldosterone (0.75 µg/hr/day) for 6 weeks and were given 0.9% NaCl±losartan (30 mg/kg/day), spironolactone (200 mg/kg/day), and apocynin (1.5 mM/L). Aldosterone-salt hypertension was prevented completely by spironolactone and modestly by losartan and apocynin. Aldosterone increased aortic NAD(P)H oxidase activity by 34% and spironolactone and losartan inhibited the activity. Aortic expression of the subunits p47phox, gp91phox, and p22phox increased in aldosterone-infused rats by 5.5, 4.7, and 3.2-fold, respectively, which was decreased completely by spironolactone and partially by losartan and apocynin. Therefore, the increased expression of NAD(P)H oxidase may contribute to cardiovascular damage in aldosterone-salt hypertension through the increased expression of each subunit

    Copper Transport Protein Antioxidant-1 Promotes Inflammatory Neovascularization via Chaperone and Transcription Factor Function

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    Supplementary information accompanies this paper at http://www.nature.com/srepCopper (Cu), an essential micronutrient, plays a fundamental role in inflammation and angiogenesis; however, its precise mechanism remains undefined. Here we uncover a novel role of Cu transport protein Antioxidant-1 (Atox1), which is originally appreciated as a Cu chaperone and recently discovered as a Cu-dependent transcription factor, in inflammatory neovascularization. Atox1 expression is upregulated in patients and mice with critical limb ischemia. Atox1-deficient mice show impaired limb perfusion recovery with reduced arteriogenesis, angiogenesis, and recruitment of inflammatory cells. In vivo intravital microscopy, bone marrow reconstitution, and Atox1 gene transfer in Atox1(-/-) mice show that Atox1 in endothelial cells (ECs) is essential for neovascularization and recruitment of inflammatory cells which release VEGF and TNFα. Mechanistically, Atox1-depleted ECs demonstrate that Cu chaperone function of Atox1 mediated through Cu transporter ATP7A is required for VEGF-induced angiogenesis via activation of Cu enzyme lysyl oxidase. Moreover, Atox1 functions as a Cu-dependent transcription factor for NADPH oxidase organizer p47phox, thereby increasing ROS-NFκB-VCAM-1/ICAM-1 expression and monocyte adhesion in ECs inflamed with TNFα in an ATP7A-independent manner. These findings demonstrate a novel linkage between Atox1 and NADPH oxidase involved in inflammatory neovascularization and suggest Atox1 as a potential therapeutic target for treatment of ischemic disease.SS is a British Heart Foundation (BHF) PhD student; GDA is BHF Chair in cardiac surgery and NIHR Senior Investigator; CE is a BHF Senior Research Fellow. Sources of Funding: This research was supported by NIH R01 HL070187 (T.F.), Department of Veterans Affairs Merit Review grant 1I01BX001232 (T.F.), R01HL116976 (T.F., M.U.-F.), NIH R01 HL077524 and HL077524-S1, R21HL112293 (to M.U.-F.), Ruth L. Kirschstein-National Service Research Award (Kirschstein-NRSA) T32 Training Grant (to G-F.C.), AHA Post-doctoral Fellowship 09POST2250151 (to N.U.), and 11POST5740006 (to V.S.).Peer-reviewedPublisher Versio

    Mouse models for preeclampsia: disruption of redox-regulated signaling

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    The concept that oxidative stress contributes to the development of human preeclampsia has never been tested in genetically-defined animal models. Homozygous deletion of catechol-Omethyl transferase (Comt-/-) in pregnant mice leads to human preeclampsia-like symptoms (high blood pressure, albuminurea and preterm birth) resulting from extensive vasculo-endothelial pathology, primarily at the utero-fetal interface where maternal cardiac output is dramatically increased during pregnancy. Comt converts estradiol to 2-methoxyestradiol 2 (2ME2) which counters angiogenesis by depleting hypoxia inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1 alpha) at late pregnancy. We propose that in wild type (Comt++) pregnant mice, 2ME2 destabilizes HIF-1 alpha by inhibiting mitochondrial superoxide dismutase (MnSOD). Thus, 2ME2 acts as a pro-oxidant, disrupting redox-regulated signaling which blocks angiogenesis in wild type (WT) animals in physiological pregnancy. Further, we suggest that a lack of this inhibition under normoxic conditions in mutant animals (Comt-/-) stabilises HIF-1 alpha by inactivating prolyl hydroxlases (PHD). We predict that a lack of inhibition of MnSOD, leading to persistent accumulation of HIF-1 alpha, would trigger inflammatory infiltration and endothelial damage in mutant animals. Critical tests of this hypothesis would be to recreate preeclampsia symptoms by inducing oxidative stress in WT animals or to ameliorate by treating mutant mice with Mn-SOD-catalase mimetics or activators of PHD
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