7 research outputs found

    Activation of TRPV1 and TRPM8 Channels in the Larynx and Associated Laryngopharyngeal Regions Facilitates the Swallowing Reflex

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    The larynx and associated laryngopharyngeal regions are innervated by the superior laryngeal nerve (SLN) and are highly reflexogenic. Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels have recently been detected in SLN innervated regions; however, their involvement in the swallowing reflex has not been fully elucidated. Here, we explore the contribution of two TRP channels, TRPV1 and TRPM8, located in SLN-innervated regions to the swallowing reflex. Immunohistochemistry identified TRPV1 and TRPM8 on cell bodies of SLN afferents located in the nodose-petrosal-jugular ganglionic complex. The majority of TRPV1 and TRPM8 immunoreactivity was located on unmyelinated neurons. Topical application of different concentrations of TRPV1 and TRPM8 agonists modulated SLN activity. Application of the agonists evoked a significantly greater number of swallowing reflexes compared with the number evoked by distilled water. The intervalbetween the reflexes evoked by the agonists was shorter than that produced by distilled water. Prior topical application of respective TRPV1 or TRPM8 antagonists significantly reduced the number of agonist-evoked reflexes. The findings suggest that the activation of TRPV1 and TRPM8 channels present in the swallowing-related regions can facilitate the evoking of swallowing reflex. Targeting the TRP channels could be a potential therapeutic strategy for the management of dysphagia

    The Role of Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) Channels in the Transduction of Dental Pain

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    Dental pain is a common health problem that negatively impacts the activities of daily living. Dentine hypersensitivity and pulpitis-associated pain are among the most common types of dental pain. Patients with these conditions feel pain upon exposure of the affected tooth to various external stimuli. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying dental pain, especially the transduction of external stimuli to electrical signals in the nerve, remain unclear. Numerous ion channels and receptors localized in the dental primary afferent neurons (DPAs) and odontoblasts have been implicated in the transduction of dental pain, and functional expression of various polymodal transient receptor potential (TRP) channels has been detected in DPAs and odontoblasts. External stimuli-induced dentinal tubular fluid movement can activate TRP channels on DPAs and odontoblasts. The odontoblasts can in turn activate the DPAs by paracrine signaling through ATP and glutamate release. In pulpitis, inflammatory mediators may sensitize the DPAs. They could also induce post-translational modifications of TRP channels, increase trafficking of these channels to nerve terminals, and increase the sensitivity of these channels to stimuli. Additionally, in caries-induced pulpitis, bacterial products can directly activate TRP channels on DPAs. In this review, we provide an overview of the TRP channels expressed in the various tooth structures, and we discuss their involvement in the development of dental pain

    Neuron–Glia Crosstalk and Neuropathic Pain: Involvement in the Modulation of Motor Activity in the Orofacial Region

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    Neuropathic orofacial pain (NOP) is a debilitating condition. Although the pathophysiology remains unclear, accumulating evidence suggests the involvement of multiple mechanisms in the development of neuropathic pain. Recently, glial cells have been shown to play a key pathogenetic role. Nerve injury leads to an immune response near the site of injury. Satellite glial cells are activated in the peripheral ganglia. Various neural and immune mediators, released at the central terminals of primary afferents, lead to the sensitization of postsynaptic neurons and the activation of glia. The activated glia, in turn, release pro-inflammatory factors, further sensitizing the neurons, and resulting in central sensitization. Recently, we observed the involvement of glia in the alteration of orofacial motor activity in NOP. Microglia and astroglia were activated in the trigeminal sensory and motor nuclei, in parallel with altered motor functions and a decreased pain threshold. A microglial blocker attenuated the reduction in pain threshold, reduced the number of activated microglia, and restored motor activity. We also found an involvement of the astroglial glutamate–glutamine shuttle in the trigeminal motor nucleus in the alteration of the jaw reflex. Neuron–glia crosstalk thus plays an important role in the development of pain and altered motor activity in NOP. View Full-Tex

    Targeting Peripherally Restricted Cannabinoid Receptor 1, Cannabinoid Receptor 2, and Endocannabinoid-Degrading Enzymes for the Treatment of Neuropathic Pain Including Neuropathic Orofacial Pain

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    Neuropathic pain conditions including neuropathic orofacial pain (NOP) are difficult to treat. Contemporary therapeutic agents for neuropathic pain are often ineffective in relieving pain and are associated with various adverse effects. Finding new options for treating neuropathic pain is a major priority in pain-related research. Cannabinoid-based therapeutic strategies have emerged as promising new options. Cannabinoids mainly act on cannabinoid 1 (CB1) and 2 (CB2) receptors, and the former is widely distributed in the brain. The therapeutic significance of cannabinoids is masked by their adverse effects including sedation, motor impairment, addiction and cognitive impairment, which are thought to be mediated by CB1 receptors in the brain. Alternative approaches have been developed to overcome this problem by selectively targeting CB2 receptors, peripherally restricted CB1 receptors and endocannabinoids that may be locally synthesized on demand at sites where their actions are pertinent. Many preclinical studies have reported that these strategies are effective for treating neuropathic pain and produce no or minimal side effects. Recently, we observed that inhibition of degradation of a major endocannabinoid, 2-arachydonoylglycerol, can attenuate NOP following trigeminal nerve injury in mice. This review will discuss the above-mentioned alternative approaches that show potential for treating neuropathic pain including NOP
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