933 research outputs found

    Processing count queries over event streams at multiple time granularities

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    Cataloged from PDF version of article.Management and analysis of streaming data has become crucial with its applications to web, sensor data, network traffic data, and stock market. Data streams consist of mostly numeric data but what is more interesting are the events derived from the numerical data that need to be monitored. The events obtained from streaming data form event streams. Event streams have similar properties to data streams, i.e., they are seen only once in a fixed order as a continuous stream. Events appearing in the event stream have time stamps associated with them at a certain time granularity, such as second, minute, or hour. One type of frequently asked queries over event streams are count queries, i.e., the frequency of an event occurrence over time. Count queries can be answered over event streams easily, however, users may ask queries over different time granularities as well. For example, a broker may ask how many times a stock increased in the same time frame, where the time frames specified could be an hour, day, or both. Such types of queries are challenging especially in the case of event streams where only a window of an event stream is available at a certain time instead of the whole stream. In this paper, we propose a technique for predicting the frequencies of event occurrences in event streams at multiple time granularities. The proposed approximation method efficiently estimates the count of events with a high accuracy in an event stream at any time granularity by examining the distance distributions of event occurrences. The proposed method has been implemented and tested on different real data sets including daily price changes in two different stock exchange markets. The obtained results show its effectiveness. (C) 2005 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved

    Surface Engineered Angstrom Thick ZnO-sheathed TiO2 Nanowires as Photoanode for Performance Enhanced Dye-sensitized Solar Cells

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    Cataloged from PDF version of article.This paper presents a systematic study on the effects of angstrom-thick atomic layer deposited (ALD) ZnO sheaths on hydrothermally-grown TiO2 nanowires (NWs) used as photoanodes in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). We designed, synthesized and characterized the samples prepared using different numbers of ZnO cycles and compared their photovoltaic (PV) performances. The device consisting of TiO2 NWs coated with the optimum thickness (two cycles) of ZnO shell exhibits a three-fold increase in efficiency compared to a control reference device. This paper reports results and features that demonstrate the passivation of surface state traps upon deposition of ZnO shells. While this passivation of surface traps provides a reduction in the back-reactions of the surface state mediated electrons (KET trap), it is speculated that ZnO-induced surface band bending (SBB) substantially reduces the recombination rate of the device by reducing the recombination rate of the conduction band (CB) electrons (KET CB). Moreover, an enhancement in the amount of dye uptake for ZnO-coated TiO2 samples is observed and explained with the isoelectric point (IEP) concept. In spite of the excellent PV power conversion efficiencies achieved by the first ZnO cycles, thicker layers impede the electron injection rate, reducing the efficiency of the device by capturing the photogenerated dye electrons in ZnO quantum wells. Here, we investigate the mechanisms contributing to this unprecedented change and correlate them with the enhancement in device efficiency. ┬ę The Royal Society of Chemistry 2014

    Design and modelling of magnetic on-chip structures at 240 GHz

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    OBJECTIVE: a benchmark for object-oriented active database systems

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    Cataloged from PDF version of article.Although much work in the area of Active Database Management Systems (ADBMSs) has been done, it is not yet clear how the performance of an active DBMS can be evaluated systematically. In this paper, we describe the OBJECTIVE Benchmark for object-oriented ADBMSs, and present experimental results from its implementation in an active database system prototype. OBJECTIVE can be used to identify performance bottlenecks and active functionalities of an ADBMS, and to compare the performance of multiple ADBMSs. (C) 1999 Published by Elsevier Science Inc. All rights reserved
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