288 research outputs found

    Pathophysiological Interference with Neurovascular Coupling – When Imaging Based on Hemoglobin Might Go Blind

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    Assessing neuronal activity by non-invasive functional brain imaging techniques which are based on the hemodynamic response depends totally on the physiological cascade of metabolism and blood flow. At present, functional brain imaging with near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) or BOLD-fMRI is widely used in cognitive neuroscience in healthy subjects where neurovascular coupling and cerebrovascular reactivity can be assumed to be intact. Local activation studies as well as studies investigating functional connectivity between brain regions of the resting brain provide a rapidly increasing body of knowledge on brain function in humans and animals. Furthermore, functional NIRS and MRI techniques are increasingly being used in patients with severe brain diseases and this use might gain more and more importance for establishing their use in the clinical routine. However, more and more experimental evidence shows that changes in baseline physiological parameters, pharmacological interventions, or disease-related vascular changes may significantly alter the normal response of blood flow and blood oxygenation and thus may lead to misinterpretation of neuronal activity. In this article we present examples of recent experimental findings on pathophysiological changes of neurovascular coupling parameters in animals and discuss their potential implications for functional imaging based on hemodynamic signals such as fNIRS or BOLD-fMRI. To enable correct interpretation of neuronal activity by vascular signals, future research needs to deepen our understanding of the basic mechanisms of neurovascular coupling and the specific characteristics of disturbed neurovascular coupling in the diseased brain

    Standard operating procedures (SOP) in experimental stroke research: SOP for middle cerebral artery occlusion in the mouse

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    Recently, systematic reviews have found quantitative evidence that low study quality may have introduced a bias into preclinical stroke research. Monitoring, auditing, and standard operating procedures (SOPs) are already key elements of quality control in randomized clinical trials and will hopefully be widely adopted by preclinical stroke research in the near future. Increasingly, funding bodies and review boards overseeing animal experiments are taking a proactive stance, and demand auditable quality control measures in preclinical research. Every good quality control system is based on its SOPs. This article introduces the concept of quality control and presents for the first time an SOP in experimental stroke research

    Standard operating procedures (SOP) in experimental stroke research: SOP for middle cerebral artery occlusion in the mouse

    Get PDF
    Recently, systematic reviews have found quantitative evidence that low study quality may have introduced a bias into preclinical stroke research. Monitoring, auditing, and standard operating procedures (SOPs) are already key elements of quality control in randomized clinical trials and will hopefully be widely adopted by preclinical stroke research in the near future. Increasingly, funding bodies and review boards overseeing animal experiments are taking a proactive stance, and demand auditable quality control measures in preclinical research. Every good quality control system is based on its SOPs. This article introduces the concept of quality control and presents for the first time an SOP in experimental stroke research

    Exploratory Investigation of Intestinal Function and Bacterial Translocation After Focal Cerebral Ischemia in the Mouse

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    Background and Purpose: The gut communicates with the brain bidirectionally via neural, humoral and immune pathways. All these pathways are affected by acute brain lesions, such as stroke. Brain-gut communication may therefore impact on the overall outcome after CNS-injury. Until now, contradictory reports on intestinal function and translocation of gut bacteria after experimental stroke have been published. Accordingly, we aimed to specifically investigate the effects of transient focal cerebral ischemia on intestinal permeability, gut associated lymphoid tissue and bacterial translocation in an exploratory study using a well-characterized murine stroke model.Methods: After 60 min of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) we assessed intestinal morphology (time points after surgery day 0, 3, 5, 14, 21) and tight junction protein expression (occludin and claudin-1 at day 1 and 3) in 12-week-old male C57Bl/6J mice. Lactulose/mannitol/sucralose test was performed to assess intestinal permeability 24–72 h after surgery. To investigate the influence of cerebral ischemia on the local immune system of the gut, main immune cell populations in Peyer's patches (PP) were quantified by flow cytometry. Finally, we evaluated bacterial translocation to extraintestinal organs 24 and 72 h after MCAO by microbiological culture and fluorescence in situ hybridization targeting bacterial 16S rRNA.Results: Transient MCAO decreased claudin-1 expression in the ileum but not in the colon. Intestinal morphology (assessed by light microscopy) and permeability did not change measurably after MCAO. After MCAO, animals had significantly fewer B cells in PP compared to naïve mice.Conclusions: In a murine model of stroke, which leads to large brain infarctions in the middle cerebral artery territory, we did not find evidence for overt alterations neither in gut morphology, barrier proteins and permeability nor presence of intestinal bacterial translocation

    Methylprednisolone blocks interleukin 1 beta induced calcitonin gene related peptide release in trigeminal ganglia cells

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    Background Methylprednisolone (MPD) is a rapid acting highly effective cluster headache preventive and also suppresses the recurrence of migraine attacks. Previously, we could demonstrate that elevated CGRP plasma levels in a cluster headache bout are normalized after a course of high dose corticosteroids. Here we assess whether MPD suppresses interleukin-1β (IL-1β)- and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2)-induced CGRP release in a cell culture model of trigeminal ganglia cells, which could account for the preventive effect in migraine and cluster headache. Metoprolol(MTP), a migraine preventive with a slow onset of action, was used for comparison. Methods Primary cultures of rat trigeminal ganglia were stimulated for 24 h with 10 ng/ml IL-1β or for 4 h with 10 μM PGE2 following the exposure to 10 or 100 μM MPD or 100 nM or 10 µM MTP for 45 min or 24 h. CGRP was determined by using a commercial enzyme immunoassay. Results MPD but not MTP blocked IL-1β-induced CGRP release from cultured trigeminal cells. PGE2-stimulated CGRP release from trigeminal ganglia cell culture was not affected by pre-stimulation whether with MPD or MTP. Conclusion MPD but not MTP suppresses cytokine (IL-1β)-induced CGRP release from trigeminal ganglia cells. We propose that blockade of cytokine mediated trigeminal activation may represent a potential mechanism of action that mediates the preventive effect of MTP on cluster headache and recurrent migraine attacks

    Modeling Stroke in Mice - Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion with the Filament Model

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    Stroke is among the most frequent causes of death and adult disability, especially in highly developed countries. However, treatment options to date are very limited. To meet the need for novel therapeutic approaches, experimental stroke research frequently employs rodent models of focal cerebral ischaemia. Most researchers use permanent or transient occlusion of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) in mice or rats

    Methylprednisolone blocks interleukin 1 beta induced calcitonin gene related peptide release in trigeminal ganglia cells

    Get PDF
    Background Methylprednisolone (MPD) is a rapid acting highly effective cluster headache preventive and also suppresses the recurrence of migraine attacks. Previously, we could demonstrate that elevated CGRP plasma levels in a cluster headache bout are normalized after a course of high dose corticosteroids. Here we assess whether MPD suppresses interleukin-1β (IL-1β)- and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2)-induced CGRP release in a cell culture model of trigeminal ganglia cells, which could account for the preventive effect in migraine and cluster headache. Metoprolol(MTP), a migraine preventive with a slow onset of action, was used for comparison. Methods Primary cultures of rat trigeminal ganglia were stimulated for 24 h with 10 ng/ml IL-1β or for 4 h with 10 μM PGE2 following the exposure to 10 or 100 μM MPD or 100 nM or 10 µM MTP for 45 min or 24 h. CGRP was determined by using a commercial enzyme immunoassay. Results MPD but not MTP blocked IL-1β-induced CGRP release from cultured trigeminal cells. PGE2-stimulated CGRP release from trigeminal ganglia cell culture was not affected by pre-stimulation whether with MPD or MTP. Conclusion MPD but not MTP suppresses cytokine (IL-1β)-induced CGRP release from trigeminal ganglia cells. We propose that blockade of cytokine mediated trigeminal activation may represent a potential mechanism of action that mediates the preventive effect of MTP on cluster headache and recurrent migraine attacks

    Standard operating procedures (SOP) in experimental stroke research: SOP for middle cerebral artery occlusion in the mouse

    Get PDF
    Systematic reviews have found quantitative evidence that low study quality may have introduced a bias into preclinical stroke research. Monitoring, auditing, and standard operating procedures (SOPs) are already key elements of quality control in randomized clinical trials and will hopefully be widely adopted by preclinical stroke research in the near future. Increasingly, funding bodies and review boards overseeing animal experiments are taking a proactive stance, and demand auditable quality control measures in preclinical research. Every good quality control system is based on its SOPs. This article introduces the concept of quality control and presents a SOP in experimental stroke research

    Systematic survey of the design, statistical analysis, and reporting of studies published in the 2008 volume of the Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism

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    Translating experimental findings into clinically effective therapies is one of the major bottlenecks of modern medicine. As this has been particularly true for cerebrovascular research, attention has turned to the quality and validity of experimental cerebrovascular studies. We set out to assess the study design, statistical analyses, and reporting of cerebrovascular research. We assessed all original articles published in the Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism during the year 2008 against a checklist designed to capture the key attributes relating to study design, statistical analyses, and reporting. A total of 156 original publications were included (animal, in vitro, human). Few studies reported a primary research hypothesis, statement of purpose, or measures to safeguard internal validity (such as randomization, blinding, exclusion or inclusion criteria). Many studies lacked sufficient information regarding methods and results to form a reasonable judgment about their validity. In nearly 20% of studies, statistical tests were either not appropriate or information to allow assessment of appropriateness was lacking. This study identifies a number of factors that should be addressed if the quality of research in basic and translational biomedicine is to be improved. We support the widespread implementation of the ARRIVE (Animal Research Reporting In Vivo Experiments) statement for the reporting of experimental studies in biomedicine, for improving training in proper study design and analysis, and that reviewers and editors adopt a more constructively critical approach in the assessment of manuscripts for publication

    Membrane attack complex inhibitor CD59a protects against focal cerebral ischemia in mice

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>The complement system is a crucial mediator of inflammation and cell lysis after cerebral ischemia. However, there is little information about the exact contribution of the membrane attack complex (MAC) and its inhibitor-protein CD59.</p> <p>Methods</p> <p>Transient focal cerebral ischemia was induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in young male and female CD59a knockout and wild-type mice. Two models of MCAO were applied: 60 min MCAO and 48 h reperfusion, as well as 30 min MCAO and 72 h reperfusion. CD59a knockout animals were compared to wild-type animals in terms of infarct size, edema, neurological deficit, and cell death.</p> <p>Results and Discussion</p> <p>CD59a-deficiency in male mice caused significantly increased infarct volumes and brain swelling when compared to wild-type mice at 72 h after 30 min-occlusion time, whereas no significant difference was observed after 1 h-MCAO. Moreover, CD59a-deficient mice had impaired neurological function when compared to wild-type mice after 30 min MCAO.</p> <p>Conclusion</p> <p>We conclude that CD59a protects against ischemic brain damage, but depending on the gender and the stroke model used.</p
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