344 research outputs found

    Diamond thin Film Detectors for Beam Monitoring Devices

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    Diamonds offer radiation hard sensors, which can be used directly in primary beams. Here we report on the use of a polycrystalline CVD diamond strip sensor as beam monitor of heavy ion beams with up to 2.10^9 lead ions per bunch. The strips allow for a determination of the transverse beam profile to a fraction of the pitch of the strips, while the timing information yields the longitudinal bunch length with a resolution of the order of a few mm.Comment: 6 pages, 7 figures, to appear in the Proceedings of the Hasselt Diamond Workshop (Hasselt, Belgium, Feb. 2006), v4: accidentally submitted figure, appearing at end, remove

    Optimal edge termination for high oxide reliability aiming 10kV SiC n-IGBTs

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    The edge termination design strongly affects the ability of a power device to support the desired voltage and its reliable operation. In this paper we present three appropriate termination designs for 10kV n-IGBTs which achieve the desired blocking requirement without the need for deep and expensive implantations. Thus, they improve the ability to fabricate, minimise the cost and reduce the lattice damage due to the high implantation energy. The edge terminations presented are optimised both for achieving the widest immunity to dopant activation and to minimise the electric field at the oxide. Thus, they ensure the long-term reliability of the device. This work has shown that the optimum design for blocking voltage and widest dose window does not necessarily give the best design for reliability. Further, it has been shown that Hybrid Junction Termination Extension structure with Space Modulated Floating Field Rings can give the best result of very high termination efficiency, as high as 99%, the widest doping variation immunity and the lowest electric field in the oxide

    Electron beam based space charge measurement of intense ion beams

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    Coulomb plasmas in outer envelopes of neutron stars

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    Outer envelopes of neutron stars consist mostly of fully ionized, strongly coupled Coulomb plasmas characterized by typical densities about 10^4-10^{11} g/cc and temperatures about 10^4-10^9 K. Many neutron stars possess magnetic fields about 10^{11}-10^{14} G. Here we briefly review recent theoretical advances which allow one to calculate thermodynamic functions and electron transport coefficients for such plasmas with an accuracy required for theoretical interpretation of observations.Comment: 4 pages, 2 figures, latex2e using cpp2e.cls (included). Proc. PNP-10 Workshop, Greifswald, Germany, 4-9 Sept. 2000. Accepted for publication in Contrib. Plasma Phys. 41 (2001) no. 2-

    Graphene-coated Rayleigh SAW resonators for NO2detection

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    This paper describes the development of a novel low-cost Rayleigh Surface Acoustic Wave Resonator (SAWR) device coated with a graphene layer that is capable of detecting PPM levels of NO2 in air. The sensor comprises two 262 MHz ST-cut quartz based Rayleigh SAWRs arranged in a dual oscillator configuration; where one resonator is coated with gas-sensitive graphene, and the other left uncoated to act as a reference. An array of NMP-dispersed exfoliated reduced graphene oxide dots was deposited in the active area inside the SAWR IDTs by a non-contacting, micro ink-jet printing system. An automated Mass Flow Controller system has been developed that delivers gases to the SAWR sensors with circuitry for excitation, amplification, buffering and signal read-out. This SAW-based graphene sensor has sensitivity to NO2 of ca. 25 Hz/ppm and could be implemented in a low-power low-cost gas sensor

    Prospects of high energy density physics research using the CERN super proton synchrotron (SPS)

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    The Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) will serve as an injector to the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN as well as it is used to accelerate and extract proton beams for fixed target experiments. In either case, safety of operation is a very important issue that needs to be carefully addressed. This paper presents detailed numerical simulations of the thermodynamic and hydrodynamic response of solid targets made of copper and tungsten that experience impact of a full SPS beam comprized of 288 bunches of 450 GeV/c protons. These simulations have shown that the material will be seriously damaged if such an accident happens. An interesting outcome of this work is that the SPS can be used to carry out dedicated experiments to study High Energy Density (HED) states in matte

    Mechanical modelling of high power lateral IGBT for LED driver applications

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    An assembly exercise was proposed to replace the vertical MOSFET by lateral IGBTs (LIGBT) for LED driver systems which can provide significant advantages in terms of size reduction (LIGBTs are ten times smaller than vertical MOSFETs) and lower component count. A 6 circle, 5V gate, 800 V LIGBT device with dimension of 818μm x 672μm with deposited solder balls that has a radius of around 75μm was selected in this assembly exercise. The driver system uses chip on board (COB) technique to create a compact driver system which can fit into a GU10 bulb housing. The challenging aspect of the LIGBT package in high voltage application is underfill dielectric breakdown and solder fatigue failure. In order to predict the extreme electric field values of the underfill, an electrostatic finite element analysis was undertaken on the LIGBT package structure for various underfill permittivity values. From the electro static finite element analysis, the maximum electric field in the underfill was estimated as 38 V/μm. Five commercial underfills were selected for investigating the trade-off in materials properties that mitigate underfill electrical breakdown and solder joint fatigue failure. These selected underfills have dielectric breakdown higher than the predicted value from electrostatic analysis. The thermo-mechanical finite element analysis were undertaken for solder bump reliability for all the underfill materials. The underfill which can enhance the solder reliability was chosen as prime candidate

    CMOS integration of inkjet-printed graphene for humidity sensing.

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    We report on the integration of inkjet-printed graphene with a CMOS micro-electro-mechanical-system (MEMS) microhotplate for humidity sensing. The graphene ink is produced via ultrasonic assisted liquid phase exfoliation in isopropyl alcohol (IPA) using polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) polymer as the stabilizer. We formulate inks with different graphene concentrations, which are then deposited through inkjet printing over predefined interdigitated gold electrodes on a CMOS microhotplate. The graphene flakes form a percolating network to render the resultant graphene-PVP thin film conductive, which varies in presence of humidity due to swelling of the hygroscopic PVP host. When the sensors are exposed to relative humidity ranging from 10-80%, we observe significant changes in resistance with increasing sensitivity from the amount of graphene in the inks. Our sensors show excellent repeatability and stability, over a period of several weeks. The location specific deposition of functional graphene ink onto a low cost CMOS platform has the potential for high volume, economic manufacturing and application as a new generation of miniature, low power humidity sensors for the internet of things.S.S. acknowledges Department of Science and Technology (DST), India for Ramanujan Fellowship to support the work (project no. SR/S2/RJN-104/2011). This work was (partly) supported through the EU FP7 project MSP (611887). T.H. acknowledges support from the Royal Academy of Engineering through a fellowship (Graphlex).This is the final version of the article. It was first available from NPG via http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/srep1737

    Enhanced spectroscopic gas sensors using in-situ grown carbon nanotubes

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    In this letter, we present a fully complementary-metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) compatible microelectromechanical system thermopile infrared (IR) detector employing vertically aligned multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNT) as an advanced nano-engineered radiation absorbing material. The detector was fabricated using a commercial silicon-on-insulator (SOI) process with tungsten metallization, comprising a silicon thermopile and a tungsten resistive micro-heater, both embedded within a dielectric membrane formed by a deep-reactive ion etch following CMOS processing. In-situ CNT growth on the device was achieved by direct thermal chemical vapour deposition using the integrated micro-heater as a micro-reactor. The growth of the CNT absorption layer was verified through scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and Raman spectroscopy. The functional effects of the nanostructured ad-layer were assessed by comparing CNT-coated thermopiles to uncoated thermopiles. Fourier transform IR spectroscopy showed that the radiation absorbing properties of the CNT adlayer significantly enhanced the absorptivity, compared with the uncoated thermopile, across the IR spectrum (3 μm–15.5 μm). This led to a four-fold amplification of the detected infrared signal (4.26 μm) in a CO2 non-dispersive-IR gas sensor system. The presence of the CNT layer was shown not to degrade the robustness of the uncoated devices, whilst the 50% modulation depth of the detector was only marginally reduced by 1.5 Hz. Moreover, we find that the 50% normalized absorption angular profile is subsequently more collimated by 8°. Our results demonstrate the viability of a CNT-based SOI CMOS IR sensor for low cost air quality monitoring.This work was partly supported through the EU FP7 project SOI-HITS (No. 288481). MTC thanks the Oppenheimer Trust and the EPSRC IAA for their generous financial support.This is the author accepted manuscript. The final version is available from AIP at http://scitation.aip.org/content/aip/journal/apl/106/19/10.1063/1.4921170