803 research outputs found

    Atomic force microscopy measurements of topography and friction on dotriacontane films adsorbed on a SiO2 surface

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    doi:10.1063/1.2060707 (8 pages)We report comprehensive atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements at room temperature of the nanoscale topography and lateral friction on the surface of thin solid films of an intermediate-length normal alkane, dotriacontane (n-C32H66), adsorbed onto a SiO2 surface. Our topographic and frictional images, recorded simultaneously in the contact mode, reveal a multilayer structure in which one to two layers of molecules adsorb adjacent to the SiO2 surface oriented with their long axis parallel to the interface followed by partial layers of molecules oriented perpendicular to the surface. The thicknesses of the parallel and perpendicular layers that we measured with the AFM agree with those inferred from previous x-ray specular reflectivity measurements on similarly prepared samples. We also observe bulk dotriacontane particles and, in contrast with our previous measurements, are able to determine their location. Above a minimum size, the bulk particles are separated from islands of perpendicularly oriented molecules by regions of exposed parallel layers that most likely extend underneath the particles. We find that the lateral friction is sensitive to the molecular orientation in the underlying crystalline film and can be used effectively with topographic measurements to resolve uncertainties in the film structure. We measure the same lateral friction on top of the bulk particles as on the perpendicular layers, a value that is about 2.5 times smaller than on a parallel layer. Scans on top of parallel layers indicate a constant height but reveal domains having different sublevels of friction. We explain this by the domains having different azimuthal orientations of the molecules.This work was supported by U.S. National Science Foundation under Grant Nos. DMR-0109057 and DMR-0411748, by the Chilean government under FONDECYTGrant Nos. 1010548 and 7010548, and by the Fundacion Andes Grant No. C-13768

    No Contribution of GAD-65 and IA-2 Autoantibodies around Time of Diagnosis to the Increasing Incidence of Juvenile Type 1 Diabetes:A 9-Year Nationwide Danish Study

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    Aims. A new perspective on autoantibodies as pivotal players in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes (T1D) has recently emerged. Our key objective was to examine whether increased levels of autoantibodies against the β-cell autoantigens glutamic acid decarboxylase (isoform 65) (GADA) and insulinoma associated antigen-2A (IA-2A) mirrored the 3.4% annual increase in incidence of T1D. Methods. From the Danish Childhood Diabetes Register, we randomly selected 500 patients and 500 siblings for GADA and IA-2A analysis (1997 through 2005). Blood samples were taken within three months after onset. A robust log-normal regression model was used. Nine hundred children and adolescents had complete records and were included in the analysis. Cochran-Armitage test for trend was used to evaluate changes in prevalence of autoantibody positivity by period. Results. No significant changes in levels of GADA and IA-2A were found over our 9-year study period. No trends in autoantibody positivity—in either patients or siblings—were found. Levels of GADA and IA-2A were significantly associated with HLA risk groups and GADA with age. Conclusion. The prevalence of positivity and the levels of GADA and IA-2A have not changed between 1997 and 2005 in newly diagnosed patients with T1D and their siblings without T1D

    Association between Neonatal Whole Blood Iron Content and Cytokines, Adipokines, and Other Immune Response Proteins

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    (1) Background: High iron associates with inflammation and type 1 diabetes (T1D). Iron is essential not only for neonatal development but also for infectious microorganisms. The neonatal immune system is immature, and innate immunity prevails before immunocompetence develops. (2) Methods: In 398 newborns from the Danish Newborn Screening Biobank, we examined if whole blood iron (WB-Iron) content were associated with cytokines, adipokines, C-reactive protein (CRP), and mannose-binding lectin (MBL) in non-infected healthy neonates, and if these associations differed in newborns who later developed T1D (cases) (n = 199). WB-Iron was quantified using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry on the neonatal dried blood spots. For each analyte, the relative change (RC) in the mean level was modeled by robust log-normal regression. (3) Results: A one unit increase in neonatal WB-Iron was associated with a 38% decrease in mean interleukin (IL)-6 levels (0.62; 95% CI: 0.40–0.95, p = 0.03), and a 37% decrease in mean MBL levels (0.63; 95% CI: 0.41–0.95, p = 0.03), but was not statistically significant after correction for multiple testing. (4) Conclusions: In summary, we found that higher neonatal WB-iron content was inversely associated with IL-6 and MBL, which may increase susceptibility to infections

    Complete Genome Sequences of Escherichia coli Strains 1303 and ECC-1470 Isolated from Bovine Mastitis

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    Escherichia coli is the leading causative agent of acute bovine mastitis. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of E. coli O70:H32 strain 1303, isolated from an acute case of bovine mastitis, and E. coli Ont:Hnt strain ECC-1470, isolated from a persistent infection

    Training Does Not Alter Muscle Ceramide and Diacylglycerol in Offsprings of Type 2 Diabetic Patients Despite Improved Insulin Sensitivity

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    Ceramide and diacylglycerol (DAG) may be involved in the early phase of insulin resistance but data are inconsistent in man. We evaluated if an increase in insulin sensitivity after endurance training was accompanied by changes in these lipids in skeletal muscle. Nineteen first-degree type 2 diabetes Offsprings (Offsprings) (age: 33.1±1.4 yrs; BMI: 26.4±0.4 kg/m2) and sixteen matched Controls (age: 31.3±1.5 yrs; BMI: 25.3±0.7 kg/m2) performed 10 weeks of endurance training three times a week at 70% of VO2max on a bicycle ergometer. Before and after the intervention a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp and VO2max test were performed and muscle biopsies obtained. Insulin sensitivity was significantly lower in Offsprings compared to control subjects (p<0.01) but improved in both groups after 10 weeks of endurance training (Off: 17±6%; Con: 12±9%, p<0.01). The content of muscle ceramide, DAG, and their subspecies were similar between groups and did not change in response to the endurance training except for an overall reduction in C22:0-Cer (p<0.05). Finally, the intervention induced an increase in AKT protein expression (Off: 27±11%; Con: 20±24%, p<0.05). This study showed no relation between insulin sensitivity and ceramide or DAG content suggesting that ceramide and DAG are not major players in the early phase of insulin resistance in human muscle

    a.SCatch: semantic structure for architectural floor plan retrieval

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    Architects’ daily routine involves working with drawings. They use either a pen or a computer to sketch out their ideas or to do a drawing to scale. We therefore propose the use of a sketch-based approach when using the floor plan repository for queries. This enables the user of the system to sketch a schematic abstraction of a floor plan and search for floor plans that are structurally similar. We also propose the use of a visual query language, and a semantic structure as put forward by Langenhan. An algorithm extracts the semantic structure sketched by the architect on DFKI’s Touch& Write table and compares the structure of the sketch with that of those from the floor plan repository. The a.SCatch system enables the user to access knowledge from past projects easily. Based on CBR strategies and shape detection technologies, a sketch-based retrieval gives access to a semantic floor plan repository. Furthermore, details of a prototypical application which allows semantic structure to be extracted from image data and put into the repository semi-automatically are provided

    High temporal resolution parametric MRI monitoring of the initial ischemia/reperfusion phase in experimental acute kidney injury

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    Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury, a consequence of kidney hypoperfusion or temporary interruption of blood flow is a common cause of acute kidney injury (AKI). There is an unmet need to better understand the mechanisms operative during the initial phase of ischemic AKI. Non-invasive parametric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may elucidate spatio-temporal pathophysiological changes in the kidney by monitoring the MR relaxation parameters T* and T, which are known to be sensitive to blood oxygenation. The aim of our study was to establish the technical feasibility of fast continuous T*/T mapping throughout renal I/R. MRI was combined with a remotely controlled I/R model and a segmentation model based semi-automated quantitative analysis. This technique enabled the detailed assessment of changes in all kidney regions during ischemia and early reperfusion. Significant changes in T* and T were observed shortly after induction of renal ischemia and during the initial reperfusion phase. Our study demonstrated for the first time that continuous and high temporal resolution parametric MRI is feasible for monitoring and characterization of I/R induced AKI in rats. This technique may help in the identification of the timeline of key events responsible for development of renal damage in hypoperfusion-induced AKI

    Bats Use Magnetite to Detect the Earth's Magnetic Field

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    While the role of magnetic cues for compass orientation has been confirmed in numerous animals, the mechanism of detection is still debated. Two hypotheses have been proposed, one based on a light dependent mechanism, apparently used by birds and another based on a “compass organelle” containing the iron oxide particles magnetite (Fe3O4). Bats have recently been shown to use magnetic cues for compass orientation but the method by which they detect the Earth's magnetic field remains unknown. Here we use the classic “Kalmijn-Blakemore” pulse re-magnetization experiment, whereby the polarity of cellular magnetite is reversed. The results demonstrate that the big brown bat Eptesicus fuscus uses single domain magnetite to detect the Earths magnetic field and the response indicates a polarity based receptor. Polarity detection is a prerequisite for the use of magnetite as a compass and suggests that big brown bats use magnetite to detect the magnetic field as a compass. Our results indicate the possibility that sensory cells in bats contain freely rotating magnetite particles, which appears not to be the case in birds. It is crucial that the ultrastructure of the magnetite containing magnetoreceptors is described for our understanding of magnetoreception in animals