1,360 research outputs found

    Fully-dynamic Approximation of Betweenness Centrality

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    Betweenness is a well-known centrality measure that ranks the nodes of a network according to their participation in shortest paths. Since an exact computation is prohibitive in large networks, several approximation algorithms have been proposed. Besides that, recent years have seen the publication of dynamic algorithms for efficient recomputation of betweenness in evolving networks. In previous work we proposed the first semi-dynamic algorithms that recompute an approximation of betweenness in connected graphs after batches of edge insertions. In this paper we propose the first fully-dynamic approximation algorithms (for weighted and unweighted undirected graphs that need not to be connected) with a provable guarantee on the maximum approximation error. The transfer to fully-dynamic and disconnected graphs implies additional algorithmic problems that could be of independent interest. In particular, we propose a new upper bound on the vertex diameter for weighted undirected graphs. For both weighted and unweighted graphs, we also propose the first fully-dynamic algorithms that keep track of such upper bound. In addition, we extend our former algorithm for semi-dynamic BFS to batches of both edge insertions and deletions. Using approximation, our algorithms are the first to make in-memory computation of betweenness in fully-dynamic networks with millions of edges feasible. Our experiments show that they can achieve substantial speedups compared to recomputation, up to several orders of magnitude

    Phase Transitions in Generalised Spin-Boson (Dicke) Models

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    We consider a class of generalised single mode Dicke Hamiltonians with arbitrary boson coupling in the pseudo-spin xx-zz plane. We find exact solutions in the thermodynamic, large-spin limit as a function of the coupling angle, which allows us to continuously move between the simple dephasing and the original Dicke Hamiltonians. Only in the latter case (orthogonal static and fluctuating couplings), does the parity-symmetry induced quantum phase transition occur.Comment: 6 pages, 5 figue

    A Sparse Stress Model

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    Force-directed layout methods constitute the most common approach to draw general graphs. Among them, stress minimization produces layouts of comparatively high quality but also imposes comparatively high computational demands. We propose a speed-up method based on the aggregation of terms in the objective function. It is akin to aggregate repulsion from far-away nodes during spring embedding but transfers the idea from the layout space into a preprocessing phase. An initial experimental study informs a method to select representatives, and subsequent more extensive experiments indicate that our method yields better approximations of minimum-stress layouts in less time than related methods.Comment: Appears in the Proceedings of the 24th International Symposium on Graph Drawing and Network Visualization (GD 2016

    Centrality in Policy Network Drawings

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    Simultaneous Embeddability of Two Partitions

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    We study the simultaneous embeddability of a pair of partitions of the same underlying set into disjoint blocks. Each element of the set is mapped to a point in the plane and each block of either of the two partitions is mapped to a region that contains exactly those points that belong to the elements in the block and that is bounded by a simple closed curve. We establish three main classes of simultaneous embeddability (weak, strong, and full embeddability) that differ by increasingly strict well-formedness conditions on how different block regions are allowed to intersect. We show that these simultaneous embeddability classes are closely related to different planarity concepts of hypergraphs. For each embeddability class we give a full characterization. We show that (i) every pair of partitions has a weak simultaneous embedding, (ii) it is NP-complete to decide the existence of a strong simultaneous embedding, and (iii) the existence of a full simultaneous embedding can be tested in linear time.Comment: 17 pages, 7 figures, extended version of a paper to appear at GD 201

    Lombardi Drawings of Graphs

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    We introduce the notion of Lombardi graph drawings, named after the American abstract artist Mark Lombardi. In these drawings, edges are represented as circular arcs rather than as line segments or polylines, and the vertices have perfect angular resolution: the edges are equally spaced around each vertex. We describe algorithms for finding Lombardi drawings of regular graphs, graphs of bounded degeneracy, and certain families of planar graphs.Comment: Expanded version of paper appearing in the 18th International Symposium on Graph Drawing (GD 2010). 13 pages, 7 figure

    Centrality scaling in large networks

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    Betweenness centrality lies at the core of both transport and structural vulnerability properties of complex networks, however, it is computationally costly, and its measurement for networks with millions of nodes is near impossible. By introducing a multiscale decomposition of shortest paths, we show that the contributions to betweenness coming from geodesics not longer than L obey a characteristic scaling vs L, which can be used to predict the distribution of the full centralities. The method is also illustrated on a real-world social network of 5.5*10^6 nodes and 2.7*10^7 links

    Anisotropic Radial Layout for Visualizing Centrality and Structure in Graphs

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    This paper presents a novel method for layout of undirected graphs, where nodes (vertices) are constrained to lie on a set of nested, simple, closed curves. Such a layout is useful to simultaneously display the structural centrality and vertex distance information for graphs in many domains, including social networks. Closed curves are a more general constraint than the previously proposed circles, and afford our method more flexibility to preserve vertex relationships compared to existing radial layout methods. The proposed approach modifies the multidimensional scaling (MDS) stress to include the estimation of a vertex depth or centrality field as well as a term that penalizes discord between structural centrality of vertices and their alignment with this carefully estimated field. We also propose a visualization strategy for the proposed layout and demonstrate its effectiveness using three social network datasets.Comment: Appears in the Proceedings of the 25th International Symposium on Graph Drawing and Network Visualization (GD 2017
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