87 research outputs found

    Curcumin β-D-Glucuronide Modulates an Autoimmune Model of Multiple Sclerosis with Altered Gut Microbiota in the Ileum and Feces

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    ウコンに含まれる成分が腸内フローラを介して脳・脊髄の炎症を抑制 --プロドラッグ型「クルクミン」の多発性硬化症治療への応用に期待--. 京都大学プレスリリース. 2021-12-03.We developed a prodrug type of curcumin, curcumin monoglucuronide (CMG), whose intravenous/intraperitoneal injection achieves a high serum concentration of free-form curcumin. Although curcumin has been reported to alter the gut microbiota and immune responses, it is unclear whether the altered microbiota could be associated with inflammation in immune-mediated diseases, such as multiple sclerosis (MS). We aimed to determine whether CMG administration could affect the gut microbiota at three anatomical sites (feces, ileal contents, and the ileal mucosa), leading to suppression of inflammation in the central nervous system (CNS) in an autoimmune model for MS, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). We injected EAE mice with CMG, harvested the brains and spinal cords for histological analyses, and conducted microbiome analyses using 16S rRNA sequencing. CMG administration modulated EAE clinically and histologically, and altered overall microbiota compositions in feces and ileal contents, but not the ileal mucosa. Principal component analysis (PCA) of the microbiome showed that principal component (PC) 1 values in ileal contents, but not in feces, correlated with the clinical and histological EAE scores. On the other hand, when we analyzed the individual bacteria of the microbiota, the EAE scores correlated with significant increases in the relative abundance of two bacterial species at each anatomical site: Ruminococcus bromii and Blautia (Ruminococcus) gnavus in feces, Turicibacter sp. and Alistipes finegoldii in ileal contents, and Burkholderia spp. and Azoarcus spp. in the ileal mucosa. Therefore, CMG administration could alter the gut microbiota at the three different sites differentially in not only the overall gut microbiome compositions but also the abundance of individual bacteria, each of which was associated with modulation of neuroinflammation

    Bioinformatics Analyses Determined the Distinct CNS and Peripheral Surrogate Biomarker Candidates Between Two Mouse Models for Progressive Multiple Sclerosis

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    Previously, we have established two distinct progressive multiple sclerosis (MS) models by induction of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) in two mouse strains. A.SW mice develop ataxia with antibody deposition, but no T cell infiltration, in the central nervous system (CNS), while SJL/J mice develop paralysis with CNS T cell infiltration. In this study, we determined biomarkers contributing to the homogeneity and heterogeneity of two models. Using the CNS and spleen microarray transcriptome and cytokine data, we conducted computational analyses. We identified up-regulation of immune-related genes, including immunoglobulins, in the CNS of both models. Pro-inflammatory cytokines, interferon (IFN)-γ and interleukin (IL)-17, were associated with the disease progression in SJL/J mice, while the expression of both cytokines was detected only at the EAE onset in A.SW mice. Principal component analysis (PCA) of CNS transcriptome data demonstrated that down-regulation of prolactin may reflect disease progression. Pattern matching analysis of spleen transcriptome with CNS PCA identified 333 splenic surrogate markers, including Stfa2l1, which reflected the changes in the CNS. Among them, we found that two genes (PER1/MIR6883 and FKBP5) and one gene (SLC16A1/MCT1) were also significantly up-regulated and down-regulated, respectively, in human MS peripheral blood, using data mining

    T-bet, but not Gata3, overexpression is detrimental in a neurotropic viral infection

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    Intracerebral Theiler’s murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) infection in mice induces inflammatory demyelination in the central nervous system. Although C57BL/6 mice normally resistant to TMEV infection with viral clearance, we have previously demonstrated that RORγt-transgenic (tg) C57BL/6 mice, which have Th17-biased responses due to RORγt overexpression in T cells, became susceptible to TMEV infection with viral persistence. Here, using T-bet-tg C57BL/6 mice and Gata3-tg C57BL/6 mice, we demonstrated that overexpression of T-bet, but not Gata3, in T cells was detrimental in TMEV infection. Unexpectedly, T-bet-tg mice died 2 to 3 weeks after infection due to failure of viral clearance. Here, TMEV infection induced splenic T cell depletion, which was associated with lower anti-viral antibody and T cell responses. In contrast, Gata3-tg mice remained resistant, while Gata3-tg mice had lower IFN-γ and higher IL-4 production with increased anti-viral IgG1 responses. Thus, our data identify how overexpression of T-bet and Gata3 in T cells alters anti-viral immunity and confers susceptibility to TMEV infection

    Effectiveness of exercise interventions in animal models of multiple sclerosis

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    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is associated with an impaired immune system that severely affects the spinal cord and brain, and which is marked by progressive inflammatory demyelination. Patients with MS may benefit from exercise training as a suggested course of treatment. The most commonly used animal models of studies on MS are experimental autoimmune/allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) models. The present review intends to concisely discuss the interventions using EAE models to understand the effectiveness of exercise as treatment for MS patients and thereby provide clear perspective for future research and MS management. For the present literature review, relevant published articles on EAE animal models that reported the impacts of exercise on MS, were extracted from various databases. Existing literature support the concept that an exercise regimen can reduce the severity of some of the clinical manifestations of EAE, including neurological signs, motor function, pain, and cognitive deficits. Further results demonstrate the mechanisms of EAE suppression with information relating to the immune system, demyelination, regeneration, and exercise in EAE. The role for neurotrophic factors has also been investigated. Analyzing the existing reports, this literature review infers that EAE is a suitable animal model that can help researchers develop further understanding and treatments for MS. Besides, findings from previous animal studies supports the contention that exercise assists in ameliorating MS progression

    Venous endothelial injury in central nervous system diseases

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    Regulatory Role of CD1d in Neurotropic Virus Infection▿

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    The GDVII strain of Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) causes an acute fatal polioencephalomyelitis in mice. Infection of susceptible mice with the DA strain of TMEV results in an acute polioencephalomyelitis followed by chronic immune-mediated demyelination with virus persistence in the central nervous system (CNS); DA virus infection is used as an animal model for multiple sclerosis. CD1d-restricted natural killer T (NKT) cells can contribute to viral clearance and regulation of autoimmune responses. To investigate the role of CD1d in TMEV infection, we first infected CD1d-deficient mice (CD1−/−) and wild-type BALB/c mice with GDVII virus. Wild-type mice were more resistant to virus than CD1−/− mice (50% lethal dose titers: wild-type mice, 10 PFU; CD1−/− mice, 1.6 PFU). Wild-type mice had fewer viral antigen-positive cells with greater inflammation in the CNS than CD1−/− mice. Second, an analysis of DA virus infection in CD1−/− mice was conducted. Although both wild-type and CD1−/− mice had similar clinical signs during the first 2 weeks after infection, CD1−/− mice had an increase in neurological deficits over those observed in wild-type mice at 3 to 5 weeks after infection. Although wild-type mice had no demyelination, 20 and 60% of CD1−/− mice developed demyelination at 3 and 5 weeks after infection, respectively. TMEV-specific lymphoproliferative responses, interleukin-4 (IL-4) production, and IL-4/gamma interferon ratios were higher in CD1−/− mice than in wild-type mice. Thus, CD1d-restricted NKT cells may play a protective role in TMEV-induced neurological disease by alteration of the cytokine profile and virus-specific immune responses

    Adjuvant Injections Altered the Ileal and Fecal Microbiota Differently with Changes in Immunoglobulin Isotypes and Antimycobacterial Antibody Responses

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    Alterations in the gut microbiota, “dysbiosis,” have been reported in autoimmune diseases, including multiple sclerosis (MS), and their animal models. Although the animal models were induced by injections of autoantigens with adjuvants, including complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA) and pertussis toxin (PT), the effects of adjuvant injections on the microbiota are largely unknown. We aimed to clarify whether adjuvant injections could affect the microbiota in the ileum and feces. Using 16S rRNA sequencing, we found decreased alpha diversities of the gut microbiota in mice injected with CFA and PT, compared with naïve mice. Overall, microbial profiles visualized by principal component analysis demonstrated dysbiosis in feces, but not in the ileum, of adjuvant-injected mice, where the genera Lachnospiraceae NK4A136 group and Alistipes contributed to dysbiosis. When we compared the relative abundances of individual bacteria, we found changes in 16 bacterial genera in feces and seven genera in the ileum of adjuvant-injected mice, in which increased serum levels of antibody against mycobacteria (a component of CFA) and total IgG2c were correlated with the genus Facklamia. On the other hand, increased IgG1 and IgA concentrations were correlated with the genus Atopostipes. Therefore, adjuvant injections alone could alter the overall microbial profiles (i.e., microbiota) and individual bacterial abundances with altered antibody responses; dysbiosis in animal models could be partly due to adjuvant injections