1,642 research outputs found

    Comparison of antimicrobial resistance phenotypes and genotypes in enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli isolated from Australian and Vietnamese pigs

    Get PDF
    This study aimed to compare the antibiogram phenotype and carriage of antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs) of 97 porcine multidrug-resistant (MDR) enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) isolates obtained from Vietnam and 117 porcine MDR-ETEC obtained from Australia, two countries with different antimicrobial regulation systems. An antimicrobial resistance index (ARI) was calculated to quantify their potential significance to public health. Both Vietnamese and Australian isolates had moderate to high levels of resistance to commonly used antibiotics (ampicillin, tetracycline and sulphonamides). None of the Australian isolates were resistant to fluoroquinolones or third-generation cephalosporins and none possessed associated plasmid-mediated ARGs. However, 23.1% of Australian isolates were resistant to gentamicin owing to ARGs associated with apramycin or neomycin resistance [e.g. aac(3)-IV] that impart cross-resistance to gentamicin. Whilst Vietnamese isolates carried aminoglycoside ARGs, 44.4% of commercial pig isolates were resistant to gentamicin in comparison with 0% of village pig isolates. The plasmid-mediated fluoroquinolone ARG qnrB was commonly detected in Vietnamese isolates (52.3% commercial, 44.1% village), but phenotypic resistance was low (3.2% and 11.8%, respectively). The mean ARI for Vietnamese isolates (26.0) was significantly different (P < 0.001) from the mean ARI for Australian isolates (19.8), primarily reflecting fluoroquinolone resistance in the former collection. This comparison suggests the effectiveness of regulations that slow the dissemination of 'critical' resistance by restricting the availability of important classes of antimicrobials

    Closed form solution for a double quantum well using Gr\"obner basis

    Full text link
    Analytical expressions for spectrum, eigenfunctions and dipole matrix elements of a square double quantum well (DQW) are presented for a general case when the potential in different regions of the DQW has different heights and effective masses are different. This was achieved by Gr\"obner basis algorithm which allows to disentangle the resulting coupled polynomials without explicitly solving the transcendental eigenvalue equation.Comment: 4 figures, Mathematica full calculation noteboo

    Antimicrobial resistance in coagulase-positive staphylococci isolated from companion animals in Australia: a one year study

    Get PDF
    Published: April 21, 2017Methicillin-resistant coagulase-positive staphylococci (CoPS) have become increasingly recognised as opportunistic pathogens that limit therapeutic options in companion animals. The frequency of methicillin resistance amongst clinical isolates on an Australia-wide level is unknown. This study determined antimicrobial susceptibility patterns for CoPS isolated from clinical infections in companion animals (dogs, cats and horses) as part of the first nation-wide survey on antimicrobial resistance in animal pathogens in Australia for a one-year period (January 2013 to January 2014). Clinical Staphylococcus spp. isolates (n = 888) obtained from 22 veterinary diagnostic laboratories were identified by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing for 16 antimicrobials, representing 12 antimicrobial classes. Potential risk factors associated with methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus pseudintermedius isolates from dogs were analysed based on demographic factors and clinical history, including gender, age, previous antimicrobial treatment, chronic and/or recurrent diseases and site of infections. The most commonly identified CoPS were S. pseudintermedius (70.8%; dogs n = 616, cats n = 13) and S. aureus (13.2%, horses n = 53, dogs n = 47 and cats n = 17). Overall, the frequency of methicillin resistance among S. pseudintermedius (MRSP) and S. aureus (MRSA) was 11.8% and 12.8%, respectively. MRSP isolates were strongly associated with resistance to fluoroquinolones (OR 287; 95%CI 91.2-1144.8) and clindamycin (OR 105.2, 95%CI 48.5-231.9). MRSA isolates from dogs and cats were also more likely to be resistant to fluoroquinolones (OR 5.4, 95%CI 0.6-252.1), whereas MRSA from horses were more likely to be resistant to rifampicin. In multivariate analysis, MRSP-positive status was significantly associated with particular infection sites, including surgical (OR 8.8; 95%CI 3.74-20.7), and skin and soft tissue (OR 3.9; 95%CI 1.97-7.51). S. pseudintermedius isolated from dogs with surgical site infections were three times more likely to be methicillin-resistant if cases had received prior antimicrobial treatment. Whilst the survey results indicate the proportion of CoPS obtained from Australian companion animals that are methicillin-resistant is currently moderate, the identified risk factors suggest that it could rapidly increase without adequate biosecurity and infection control procedures in veterinary practice.Sugiyono Saputra, David Jordan, Kate A. Worthing, Jacqueline M. Norris, Hui S. Wong, Rebecca Abraham, Darren J. Trott, Sam Abraha

    Electroweak Baryogenesis with a Pseudo-Goldstone Higgs

    Full text link
    We examine the nature of electroweak Baryogenesis when the Higgs boson's properties are modified by the effects of new physics. We utilize the effective potential to one loop (ring improving the finite temperature perturbative expansion) while retaining parametrically enhanced dimension six operators of O(v^2/f^2) in the Higgs sector. These parametrically enhanced operators would be present if the Higgs is a pseudo-goldstone boson of a new physics sector with a characteristic mass scale Lambda ~ TeV, a coupling constant (4 pi) > g > 1 and a strong decay constant scale f = Lambda/g. We find that generically the effect of new physics of this form allows a sufficiently first order electro-weak phase transition so that the produced Baryon number can avoid washing out, and has enhanced effects due to new sources CP violation. We also improve the description of the electroweak phase transition in perturbation theory by determining the thermal mass eigenstate basis of the standard model gauge boson fields. This improves the calculation of the finite temperature effects through incorporating mixing in the determination of the vector boson thermal masses of the standard model. These effects are essential to determining the nature of the phase transition in the standard model and are of interest in our Pseudo-Goldstone Baryogenesis scenario.Comment: 28 pages, 12 Figures V3: ref adde

    Application of the Frobenius method to the Schrodinger equation for a spherically symmetric potential: anharmonic oscillator

    Full text link
    The power series method has been adapted to compute the spectrum of the Schrodinger equation for central potential of the form V(r)=d2r2+d1r+i=0diriV(r)={d_{-2}\over r^2}+{d_{-1}\over r}+\sum_{i=0}^{\infty} d_{i}r^i. The bound-state energies are given as zeros of a calculable function, if the potential is confined in a spherical box. For an unconfined potential the interval bounding the energy eigenvalues can be determined in a similar way with an arbitrarily chosen precision. The very accurate results for various spherically symmetric anharmonic potentials are presented.Comment: 16 pages, 5 figures, published in J. Phys

    Relative performance of antimicrobial susceptibility assays on clinical Escherichia coli isolates from animals

    Get PDF
    The assessment of antimicrobial resistance in bacteria derived from animals is often performed using the disc diffusion assay. However broth-microdilution is the preferred assay for national antimicrobial resistance surveillance programs. This study aimed to evaluate the accuracy of disc diffusion relative to broth-microdilution across a panel of 12 antimicrobials using data from a collection of 994 clinical Escherichia coli isolates from animals. Disc diffusion performance was evaluated by diagnostic sensitivity, specificity, likelihood ratio pairs and receive-operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Data was dichotomised using CLSI susceptible and resistant clinical breakpoints. In addition, disc diffusion breakpoints produced using diffusion Breakpoint Estimation Testing Software (dBETS) were evaluated. Analysis revealed considerable variability in performance estimates for disc diffusion susceptible and resistant breakpoints (AUC ranges: 0.78–0.99 and 0.92–1.0, respectively) across the panel of antimicrobials. Ciprofloxacin, tetracycline, and ampicillin estimates were robust across both breakpoints, whereas estimates for several antimicrobials including amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, cefoxitin and gentamicin were less favourable using susceptible breakpoints. Overall performance estimates were moderately improved when dBETS susceptible breakpoints were applied. For most antimicrobials, disc diffusion was accurate at predicting resistance of clinical E. coli from animals that could otherwise be determined by broth-microdilution. While disc diffusion is suboptimal for assessing the proportion of fully susceptible isolates for some drugs, sensitivity and specificity estimates provided here allow for the use of standard formula to correct this. For this reason, disc diffusion has applicability in national surveillance provided the performance of the assay is taken into account

    Magnetization of a two-dimensional electron gas with a second filled subband

    Get PDF
    We have measured the magnetization of a dual-subband two-dimensional electron gas, confined in a GaAs/AlGaAs heterojunction. In contrast to two-dimensional electron gases with a single subband, we observe non-1/B-periodic, triangularly shaped oscillations of the magnetization with an amplitude significantly less than 1μB1 \mu_{\mathrm{B}}^* per electron. All three effects are explained by a field dependent self-consistent model, demonstrating the shape of the magnetization is dominated by oscillations in the confining potential. Additionally, at 1 K, we observe small oscillations at magnetic fields where Landau-levels of the two different subbands cross.Comment: 4 pages, 4 figure

    Pharmacokinetics of a long-acting formulation of oxytetracycline in freshwater crocodiles (Crocodylus siamensis) after intramuscular administration at three different dosages

    Get PDF
    To date, the necessary pharmacokinetic information has been limited to establish suitable therapeutic plans for freshwater crocodiles. Therefore, this study was conducted to evaluate the pharmacokinetic profile of the oxytetracycline long-acting formulation (OTC-LA) in the freshwater crocodile, Crocodylus siamensis, following a single intramuscular (i.m.) administration at three different dosages of 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg body weight (b.w.). Blood samples were collected at assigned times up to 216 h after i.m. administration at the three different dosages. The plasma concentrations of OTC were measured using a validated liquid chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method. The Cmax (± SD) values of OTC were 2.15 ± 0.51 µg/mL, 7.68 ± 1.08 µg/mL and 17.08 ± 2.09 µg/mL at doses of 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg b.w., respectively. The elimination half-life values were 33.59 ± 2.51 h, 38.42 ± 5.47 h and 38.04 ± 1.98 h at dosages of 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg b.w., respectively. Based on the pharmacokinetic data, the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) index, the susceptibility break-point and plasma protein binding, a dosage once every two weeks of 10 mg/kg b.w. OTC intramuscularly might be suitable for initiating the treatment of susceptible bacterial infections in freshwater crocodiles. However, further PK/PD studies are warranted to confirm whether the dose rates used in this study can produce longer-term antimicrobial success for diseases caused by susceptible bacteria in freshwater crocodiles
    corecore