703 research outputs found

    Twilight of the princes : the fall and afterlife of monarchy in southern Germany, 1918-1934

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    This thesis is a comparative investigation into the afterlives and legacies of dynastic monarchy in southern Germany. Within a few days in November 1918, Germany‚Äôs monarchical edifice collapsed, suddenly and completely. In all twenty-two of the Kaiserreich‚Äôs monarchical states, the sovereign was overthrown as councils of soldiers and workers assumed power and the people‚Äôs flag was unfurled in triumph from castle turrets. Despite spelling the end for an ancient social and political order‚ÄĒand concurrently creating the first German republic‚ÄĒthese events and their consequences are curiously under-researched. As Karl Ferdinand Werner observed in 1985, they remain historiographical ‚Äúnon-events.‚ÄĚ The present study addresses this lacuna by examining the processes, experiences, and consequences of what may be termed the ‚Äėde-monarchification‚Äô of Germany after 1918‚ÄĒnamely, its transition from a patchwork of principalities to a centralised state of republican provinces. It asks how this change unfolded and under whose direction; how it was received by the deposed dynasties and their former subjects; which elements of the monarchy were repealed and replaced; and which were merely adopted and adapted. In short, by isolating how, when, and where the German people encountered and engaged with monarchy after 1918, the thesis seeks to determine how great a caesura the revolution truly was. These questions are approached from three perspectives in three states‚ÄĒHessen, Bavaria, and W√ľrttemberg. Chapters one to three firstly consider the republican leaders unexpectedly brought to power and faced with the herculean task of dismantling and replacing their monarchical inheritance. Chapters four and five then investigate how the deposed royal dynasties experienced the revolution and the republic, both as individuals and as members of a wider national and transnational social class. Chapter six, finally, considers popular responses to the upheaval and the fate of monarchism and dynastic loyalty amongst the German people. The thesis concludes that November 1918 did not signal the end for monarchy in Germany. Whether through the dynasties, who remained visible and active in their states, or through questions of de-monarchification, which dominated government agendas, monarchy remained present and demanded attention. At the constitutional level, its removal had been almost total, but its cultural roots remained strong and were, in some cases, institutionalised and made part of the new republican order. The revolution thus inaugurated the twilight of the princes; their formal influence and power had passed beyond the historical horizon, but they continued to cast a light by which historians may examine continuities in recent German history and the political culture of its most familiar and critical period

    The dialects of the Yasawa Islands of Fiji

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    Soso Village: Naviti Island, Fiji

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    It covers the social life, culture, environment, flora and fauna of a remote Fijian village that until recently had little contact with Europeans. This has changed with the development of resorts on nearby islands which provide employment for the villagers and opportunities for tourists to see village life

    Schneider, The 'Sailor Prince' in the age of empire: creating a monarchical brand in nineteenth-century Europe (Palgrave Macmillan, 2017)

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    Review of Miriam Magdalena Schneider, The 'Sailor Prince' in the Age of Empire: Creating a Monarchical Brand in Nineteenth-Century Europe (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2017).Publisher PDFNon peer reviewe

    Glencross and Rowbotham (eds.), Monarchies and the Great War (Palgrave Macmillan, 2018); & Schabas, The Trial of the Kaiser (Oxford University Press, 2018)

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    Review of Matthew Glencross and Judith Rowbotham, eds., Monarchies and the Great War (New York: Palgrave Macmillian, 2018); and William A. Schabas, The Trial of the Kaiser (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2018)

    Strategies used by gay male HIV serodiscordant couples to reduce the risk of HIV transmission from anal intercourse in three countries

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    INTRODUCTION: There are few data about the range of strategies used to prevent sexual HIV transmission within gay male serodiscordant couples. We examined HIV prevention strategies used by such couples and compared differences between countries. METHODS: Opposites Attract was a cohort study of male serodiscordant couples in Australia, Brazil and Thailand, from May 2014 (Australia) or May 2016 (Brazil/Thailand) to December 2016. At visits, HIV-positive partners had viral load (VL) tested; HIV-negative partners reported sexual behaviour and perceptions of their HIV-positive partner's VL results. Within-couple acts of condomless anal intercourse (CLAI) were categorized by strategy: condom-protected, biomedically protected (undetectable VL and/or pre-exposure prophylaxis [PrEP]), or not protected by either (HIV-negative partners engaging in insertive CLAI, receptive CLAI with withdrawal, or receptive CLAI with ejaculation). RESULTS: A total of 343 couples were included in this analysis (153 in Australia, 93 in Brazil and 97 in Thailand). Three-quarters of HIV-positive partners were consistently virally suppressed (<200 copies/mL) during follow-up, and HIV-negative partners had correct perceptions of their partner's VL result for 76.5% of tests. One-third of HIV-negative partners used daily PrEP during follow-up. Over follow-up, 73.8% of couples had CLAI. HIV-negative partners reported 31,532 acts of anal intercourse with their HIV-positive partner. Of these, 46.7% were protected by condoms, 48.6% by a biomedical strategy and 4.7% of acts were not protected by these strategies. Australian couples had fewer condom-protected acts and a higher proportion of biomedically protected acts than Brazilian and Thai couples. Of the 1473 CLAI acts where the perceived VL was detectable/unknown and were not protected by PrEP (4.7% of all acts), two-thirds (n = 983) were when the HIV-negative partner was insertive (strategic positioning). Of the 490 acts when the HIV-negative partner was receptive, 261 involved withdrawal and 280 involved ejaculation. Thus, <1% of acts were in the highest risk category of receptive CLAI with ejaculation. CONCLUSIONS: Couples used condoms, PrEP or perceived undetectable VL for prevention in the majority of anal intercourse acts. Only a very small proportion of events were not protected by these strategies. Variation between countries may reflect differences in access to HIV treatment, education, knowledge and attitudes

    Transcriptomics of human multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells: Retrospective analysis and future prospects

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    The plastic-adherent, fibroblast-like, clonogenic cells found in the human body now defined as multipotent ‚ÄúMesenchymal Stromal Cells‚ÄĚ (MSCs) hold immense potential for cell-based therapies. Recently, research and basic knowledge of these cells has fast-tracked, both from fundamental and translational perspectives. There have been important discoveries with respect to the available variety of tissue sources, the development of protocols for their easy isolation and in vitro expansion and for directed differentiation into various cell types. In addition, there has been discovery of novel abilities such as immune-modulation and the further development of the use of biomaterials to aid isolation, expansion and differentiation together with improved delivery to the selected optimal tissue site. However, the molecular fingerprint of MSCs in these contexts remains imprecise and inadequate. Consequently, without this crucial knowledge it is difficult to achieve progress to determine with precision their practical developmental potentials. Detailed investigations on the global gene expression, or transcriptome, of MSCs could offer essential clues in this regard. In this article, we address the challenges associated with MSC transcriptome studies, the paradoxes observed in published experimental results and the need for careful transcriptomic analysis. We describe the exemplary applications with various transcriptome platforms that are used to address the variation in biomarkers and the identification of differentiation processes. The evolution and the potentials for adapting next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology in transcriptome analysis are discussed. Lastly, based on review of the existing understanding and published studies, we propose how NGS may be applied to promote further understanding of the biology of MSCs and their use in allied fields such as regenerative medicine
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