145 research outputs found

    Playing the World Picture: Sid Meier’s Civilization and the Law of Abstraction

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    Sid Meier’s Civilization is the defining title of the 4X genre; identified as games where players explore a map, expand their presence on the map, exploit resources found on the map, and exterminate rivals from the map. The premise of Civilization across the instalments has been an unashamedly celebratory grand history of the West whereby the player as the controlling mind and will directs her civilisation from a single village in 4000 BC though to a future of global mastery and interstellar travel. Exploitation of natural resources, might as right, and technology as progress are hardwired into the series’ essential code. Further, the turn-based gameplay of pure strategy and timelessness suggests Descartes’ cogito. The game is experienced as a cascade of abstractions through exploiting and strategising the ‘world picture’ of the game map. This chapter argues that Civilization is the apotheosis of the West, bringing to screens what Heidegger identified as the subiectum of modernity. It involves playing within a world emanating from the law of abstraction; the world picture composed of calculatable quanta. However, in its addictive victory of abstraction lies the possibility of that worldview’s undoing. As a material artefact that is experienced for hours and days, it might play out as pure abstraction, but it cannot escape the material and the temporal. It is in this volatile intensity of Civilization that there is a possible mode of escape from abstraction

    VFR Into IMC Through the Lens of Behavioral Economics

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    Decision-making can be the difference between life and death in all types of aviation, but in general aviation (GA), where most of the flying is conducted as single-pilot operations, the decision-making of one individual becomes fundamentally important. It is critical to consider, first, why pilots make bad decisions that can ultimately lead to weather-related aviation accidents or incidents; and second, whether a better understanding of weather-related decision-making can inform regulations that will improve decision-making and consequently reduce the frequency of pilot-error accidents. Behavioral economics (BE) aims to better understand individual decision-making to model decision-making pathways. As individual decision-making is central to aviation safety, better modeling of decision-making pathways should be a central aim not just for pilots, but also for aviation regulators, such as the Civil Aviation Safety Authority (CASA) in Australia. While there has been little analysis of pilot decision-making using BE, we argue that BE, with its focus on predictive models of individual decision-making, provides a rich framework to understand pilot decision-making and inform more targeted regulation. This argument is in four parts. The first part identifies that there is an ongoing safety issue with visual flight rules (VFR) pilots flying into instrument meteorological conditions (IMC). The second part introduces some of the core concepts of BE, such as the rejection of perfect rationality and the reliance upon certain behavioral biases in decision-making. We argue that VFR into IMC is an appropriate context in which to apply BE as there is an identifiable measure of a pilot’s welfare and concerns around paternalism fall short when dealing with protecting the welfare of those likely to be impacted by a pilot’s decision-making, such as passengers and aircraft owners. The third part reviews the existing research applying behavioral models of decision-making in respect of VFR into IMC and identifies three behavioral biases that—among others—can lead to poor decision-making: (i) environmental literacy, (ii) overconfidence, and (iii) prospect theory. The final part briefly introduces some potential avenues for BE to inform regulatory reform, including better education of pilots and regulators in respect of the psychological factors to which pilots may fall victim, as well as more directed training for pilots to address the environmental literacy concerns identified in this part. We conclude that the regulatory environment should be reformulated to adequately account for predictable behavioral biases

    'I didn’t have a chance': perceptions of the attitudes and roles of legal professionals for women involved in Hague international child abduction cases

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    Studies of lawyers and clients tend to be lawyer centric. How clients see lawyers-their own or those of other parties-is less emphasised. In this article we report the perspective of ten women who had been subject to a Hague Convention on the Civil Aspects of International Child Abduction process. The Convention was created to address removal of children from custodial mothers by non-custodial fathers and aims to ensure the safe return of children to their country of “habitual residence”. However, the Hague Convention process, and the lawyers and courts that administer it, do not adequately respond to situations where mothers are fleeing domestic and family violence with their children. The women we spoke with had all fled domestic and family violence and sought safety by returning to their own country. They had been subject to a Hague Convention process for the return of their child(ren) to the country and custody of their perpetrator and experienced an accusatory, uncaring, hostile legal profession. The women felt that the lawyers were motivated by moral assessments of them and their behaviour. The lawyers were seen as participating and continuing the violence as an agent of the perpetrator and the stat

    The Robot and Human Futures: Visualising Autonomy in Law and Science Fiction

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    This article argues that legal discourses about robots are framed within a limiting ‘human paradigm.’ While this is not a specific failure of lawyers, it has significant consequences for law in a digital future. This visualising of robots has its origins in mainstream twentieth-century science fictional tropes of artificial beings. This article begins by identifying the predominant science fiction tropes regarding artificial beings as a source of anxiety for human futures, as located in discrete bodies and as separate from humans. The article then traces this ‘human paradigm’ in robot law scholarship. It is shown how a focus on embodiment and separation disrupts appreciation of the emerging partial disembodiment and hybridity of digital autonomy. There is a continual sense of needing to keep robots and humans distinct and separate, which is not how digital futures are manifesting

    Trade in the Digital Age: Agreements to Mitigate Fragmentation

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    Cross-border data flow is essential to contemporary international trade. However, transitioning from paper to digital in international trade has benefits and concerns. Concerns have led to an upsurge in data regulation as nations and regions impose restrictions on data flows and storage. This paper argues that, with increasing concerns about data sovereignty, the reconciliation of differing positions will be necessary to ensure that the benefits of digitization can be realized equally. At present, the objective of “data free flow with trust” is aspirational at best, with emerging trade barriers that unfairly threaten opportunities for small to medium enterprises and development within the Global South. This paper supports new knowledge and demonstrates that discriminatory regulation of data flow and disproportionately prioritizing national interests will be a trade barrier that impacts private entities and consumers in all nations. To avoid unintended externalities, cooperation is needed at a global level

    Regulating Future Driving: Automated Vehicles and the Harmonisation of Australian Laws

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    Harmonisation of Australian laws to ensure national consistency will be an important aspect of the introduction of automated vehicles in Australia. This paper analyses the current Australian regulatory landscape and considers the opportunities for harmonisation of Australian law and policy. It begins in Part II with an overview of automated vehicles. Part III considers the harmonisation of Australian transport regulation in relation to automated vehicles. Part IV of the paper analyses four key areas for the introduction of automated vehicles: vehicle operator licensing; application of existing road rules to automated vehicles; the proposal for a national in-service safety regulator; and compulsory third-party insurance. Each of these areas is analysed in terms of the challenges they pose, as well as the opportunities for harmonisation. We argue that the introduction of automated vehicles represents a unique, historic opportunity to modernise and harmonise Australia’s road transport laws.</p

    Foreword : On the Road

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    It is on the road as a material experience of movement and legality that Sarah Marusek brilliantly captures in this book. The roadscape – for Marusek, the assemblage emergent from asphalt, signs, and lines and the normative commitments needed for the vehicles to keep rolling – is seemingly innocuous and not seen. Normally roads and the legalities that support them, the legalities imposed by them, and the forms of techno-mobile consumption anticipated and encouraged by them, are just there. Only seen and front-of-mind when absent. The pothole that jars and disrupts smooth travel. Or the road to be built over in disregard of a local community’s concerns. The roadscape is the habitus for modern life

    Driver Licences, Diversionary Programs and Transport Justice for First Nations Peoples in Australia

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    In Australia, one significant cause of the imprisonment and disadvantage of First Nations people relates to transport injustice. First Nations people face obstacles in becoming lawful road users, particularly in relation to acquiring driver licences, with driving unlicensed a common pathway into the criminal justice system. This paper identifies that while some programs focus on increasing driver licensing for First Nations people, there are significant limitations in terms of coverage and access. Further, very few diversionary or support programs proactively address the intersection between First Nations people’s driver licensing and the criminal justice system. Nevertheless, it is argued that scope does exist within some state and territory criminal justice programs to enhance transport justice by assisting First Nations people to secure driver licensing. This paper highlights the need for accessible, available and culturally safe driver licencing support programs in First Nations communities led by First Nations people

    Regulating future driving: Automated vehicles and the harmonisation of Australian laws

    No full text
    Harmonisation of Australian laws to ensure national consistency will be an important aspect of the introduction of automated vehicles in Australia. This paper analyses the current Australian regulatory landscape and considers the opportunities for harmonisation of Australian law and policy. It begins in Part II with an overview of automated vehicles. Part III considers the harmonisation of Australian transport regulation in relation to automated vehicles. Part IV of the paper analyses four key areas for the introduction of automated vehicles: vehicle operator licensing; application of existing road rules to automated vehicles; the proposal for a national in-service safety regulator; and compulsory third-party insurance. Each of these areas is analysed in terms of the challenges they pose, as well as the opportunities for harmonisation. We argue that the introduction of automated vehicles represents a unique, historic opportunity to modernise and harmonise Australia’s road transport laws

    Navigating to smoother regulatory waters for Australian commercial vessels capable of remote or autonomous operation : a systematic quantitative literature review

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    A barrier to the deployment of autonomous vessels in Australia's commercial and defence context is the gap in understanding how existing regulatory frameworks apply and identifying a best-practice regulatory approach. This Systematic Quantitative Literature Review (SQLR) identifies and assesses relevant available literature from domestic and international resources concerning current and future regulation of domestic autonomous vessels in Australia and other nations. A standard methodology is used combining a traditional narrative review and a meta-analysis tailored for peer-reviewed literature. Only twenty research articles of varying origin, type and content were identified, highlighting a significant literature gap regarding domestic regulation of autonomous vessels in Australia and other nations. Filling the domestic literature gap is critical for further domestic regulatory development, particularly because of the growing range and functions of such vessels. The literature review undertaken supports the development of future best practice regulation, which will facilitate the ongoing development and use of autonomous vessel
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