115 research outputs found

    The Association between Early Childhood and Later Childhood Sugar-Containing Beverage Intake: A Prospective Cohort Study

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    Sugar-containing beverages (SCBs) are a major source of sugar intake in children. Early life intake of SCBs may be a strong predictor of SCB intake later in life. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate if SCB intake (defined as 100% fruit juice, soda, and sweetened drinks) in early childhood (‚ȧ2.5 years of age) was associated with SCB intake in later childhood (5-9 years of age). A prospective cohort study was conducted using data from the TARGet Kids! primary care practice network (n = 999). Typical daily SCB intake was measured by parent-completed questionnaires. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using logistic regression. A total of 43% of children consumed ‚Č•0.5 cups/day of SCBs at ‚ȧ2.5 years and this increased to 64% by 5-9 years. Daily SCB intake, compared to no daily intake, at ‚ȧ2.5 years was significantly associated with SCB intake at 5-9 years (adjusted OR: 4.03; 95% CI: 2.92-5.55) and this association was much stronger for soda/sweetened drinks (adjusted OR: 12.83; 95% CI: 4.98, 33.0) than 100% fruit juice (OR: 3.61; 95% CI: 2.63-4.95). Other early life risk factors for SCB intake at 5-9 years were presence of older siblings, low household income, and shorter breastfeeding duration. Daily intake of SCBs in early childhood was strongly associated with greater SCB intake in later childhood. Early life may be an important period to target for population prevention strategies.¬†</p

    Learn2Reg ::comprehensive multi-task medical image registration challenge, dataset and evaluation in the era of deep Learning

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    Image registration is a fundamental medical image analysis task, and a wide variety of approaches have been proposed. However, only a few studies have comprehensively compared medical image registration approaches on a wide range of clinically relevant tasks. This limits the development of registration methods, the adoption of research advances into practice, and a fair benchmark across competing approaches. The Learn2Reg challenge addresses these limitations by providing a multi-task medical image registration data set for comprehensive characterisation of deformable registration algorithms. A continuous evaluation will be possible at https://learn2reg.grand-challenge.org . Learn2Reg covers a wide range of anatomies (brain, abdomen, and thorax), modalities (ultrasound, CT, MR), availability of annotations, as well as intra- and inter-patient registration evaluation. We established an easily accessible framework for training and validation of 3D registration methods, which enabled the compilation of results of over 65 individual method submissions from more than 20 unique teams. We used a complementary set of metrics, including robustness, accuracy, plausibility, and runtime, enabling unique insight into the current state-of-the-art of medical image registration. This paper describes datasets, tasks, evaluation methods and results of the challenge, as well as results of further analysis of transferability to new datasets, the importance of label supervision, and resulting bias. While no single approach worked best across all tasks, many methodological aspects could be identified that push the performance of medical image registration to new state-of-the-art performance. Furthermore, we demystified the common belief that conventional registration methods have to be much slower than deep-learning-based method

    Para-infectious brain injury in COVID-19 persists at follow-up despite attenuated cytokine and autoantibody responses

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    To understand neurological complications of COVID-19 better both acutely and for recovery, we measured markers of brain injury, inflammatory mediators, and autoantibodies in 203 hospitalised participants; 111 with acute sera (1‚Äď11 days post-admission) and 92 convalescent sera (56 with COVID-19-associated neurological diagnoses). Here we show that compared to 60 uninfected controls, tTau, GFAP, NfL, and UCH-L1 are increased with COVID-19 infection at acute timepoints and NfL and GFAP are significantly higher in participants with neurological complications. Inflammatory mediators (IL-6, IL-12p40, HGF, M-CSF, CCL2, and IL-1RA) are associated with both altered consciousness and markers of brain injury. Autoantibodies are more common in COVID-19 than controls and some (including against MYL7, UCH-L1, and GRIN3B) are more frequent with altered consciousness. Additionally, convalescent participants with neurological complications show elevated GFAP and NfL, unrelated to attenuated systemic inflammatory mediators and to autoantibody responses. Overall, neurological complications of COVID-19 are associated with evidence of neuroglial injury in both acute and late disease and these correlate with dysregulated innate and adaptive immune responses acutely

    Reducing the environmental impact of surgery on a global scale: systematic review and co-prioritization with healthcare workers in 132 countries

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    Abstract Background Healthcare cannot achieve net-zero carbon without addressing operating theatres. The aim of this study was to prioritize feasible interventions to reduce the environmental impact of operating theatres. Methods This study adopted a four-phase Delphi consensus co-prioritization methodology. In phase 1, a systematic review of published interventions and global consultation of perioperative healthcare professionals were used to longlist interventions. In phase 2, iterative thematic analysis consolidated comparable interventions into a shortlist. In phase 3, the shortlist was co-prioritized based on patient and clinician views on acceptability, feasibility, and safety. In phase 4, ranked lists of interventions were presented by their relevance to high-income countries and low‚Äďmiddle-income countries. Results In phase 1, 43 interventions were identified, which had low uptake in practice according to 3042 professionals globally. In phase 2, a shortlist of 15 intervention domains was generated. In phase 3, interventions were deemed acceptable for more than 90 per cent of patients except for reducing general anaesthesia (84 per cent) and re-sterilization of ‚Äėsingle-use‚Äô consumables (86 per cent). In phase 4, the top three shortlisted interventions for high-income countries were: introducing recycling; reducing use of anaesthetic gases; and appropriate clinical waste processing. In phase 4, the top three shortlisted interventions for low‚Äďmiddle-income countries were: introducing reusable surgical devices; reducing use of consumables; and reducing the use of general anaesthesia. Conclusion This is a step toward environmentally sustainable operating environments with actionable interventions applicable to both high‚Äď and low‚Äďmiddle‚Äďincome countries

    Transbronchial Techniques for Lung Cancer Treatment: Where Are We Now?

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    The demand for parenchyma-sparing local therapies for lung cancer is rising owing to an increasing incidence of multifocal lung cancers and patients who are unfit for surgery. With the latest evidence of the efficacy of lung cancer screening, more premalignant or early-stage lung cancers are being discovered and the paradigm has shifted from treatment to prevention. Transbronchial therapy is an important armamentarium in the local treatment of lung cancers, with microwave ablation being the most promising based on early to midterm results. Adjuncts to improve transbronchial ablation efficiency and accuracy include mobile C-arm platforms, software to correct for the CT-to-body divergence, metal-containing nanoparticles, and robotic bronchoscopy. Other forms of energy including steam vapor therapy and pulse electric field are under intensive investigation

    Delayed mucosal anti-viral responses despite robust peripheral inflammation in fatal COVID-19

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    Background While inflammatory and immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection in peripheral blood are extensively described, responses at the upper respiratory mucosal site of initial infection are relatively poorly defined. We sought to identify mucosal cytokine/chemokine signatures that distinguished COVID-19 severity categories, and relate these to disease progression and peripheral inflammation. Methods We measured 35 cytokines and chemokines in nasal samples from 274 patients hospitalised with COVID-19. Analysis considered the timing of sampling during disease, as either the early (0-5 days post-symptom onset) or late (6-20 days post-symptom onset). Results Patients that survived severe COVID-19 showed IFN-dominated mucosal immune responses (IFN-ő≥, CXCL10 and CXCL13) early in infection. These early mucosal responses were absent in patients that would progress to fatal disease despite equivalent SARS-CoV-2 viral load. Mucosal inflammation in later disease was dominated by IL-2, IL-10, IFN-ő≥, and IL-12p70, which scaled with severity but did not differentiate patients who would survive or succumb to disease. Cytokines and chemokines in the mucosa showed distinctions from responses evident in the peripheral blood, particularly during fatal disease. Conclusions Defective early mucosal anti-viral responses anticipate fatal COVID-19 but are not associated with viral load. Early mucosal immune responses may define the trajectory of severe COVID-19

    Dwarf Galaxy Discoveries from the KMTNet Supernova Program III. the Milky-Way Analog NGC~2997 Group

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    We present the discovery of 48 new and the analysis of 55, including 7 previously discovered, dwarf galaxy candidates around the giant spiral galaxy NGC~2997 using deep BVIBVI images from the KMTNet Supernova Program. Their VV-band central surface brightness and total absolute magnitudes range between 20.3--26.7 mag arcsec‚ąí2^{-2} and --(8.02--17.69) mag, respectively, while the II-band effective radii are between 0.14 and 2.97 kpc. We obtain őĪ\alpha ‚ČÉ\simeq --1.43 ¬Ī\pm 0.02 for the faint-end slope of their luminosity function, comparable to previously measured values but shallower than theoretical predictions based on őõ\LambdaCDM models. The distance-independent distributions of their mass and color from the host galaxy NGC~2997 suggest that the group could be dynamically young, prior to the development of significant mass segregation or radial color gradients. The systematically bluer colors of the brighter candidates than the fainter ones indicate higher star formation activities in brighter members. We suggest that the higher-mass dwarf galaxies in the group have maintained star-formation activities by effectively retaining gas content, while environmental quenching is only effective for the lower-mass galaxies. The interpretation of early evolutionary stage of this group is also consistent with the overall morphological distribution of the dwarf galaxy candidates showing a lack of morphologically evolved candidates but a plethora of irregularly shaped ones. Our detection rate of dwarf galaxy candidates in the NGC~2997 group and their inferred star formation activities are largely comparable to those found in Milky Way analog systems from the SAGA survey within the magnitude limit MV_{V} ‚Č≤\lesssim --13 mag, as well as those found in the ELVES survey

    The P323L substitution in the SARS-CoV-2 polymerase (NSP12) confers a selective advantage during infection