183 research outputs found

    Observational and genetic associations between cardiorespiratory fitness and cancer:A UK Biobank and international consortia study

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    Background: The association of fitness with cancer risk is not clear. Methods: We used Cox proportional hazards models to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for risk of lung, colorectal, endometrial, breast, and prostate cancer in a subset of UK Biobank participants who completed a submaximal fitness test in 2009-12 (N = 72,572). We also investigated relationships using two-sample Mendelian randomisation (MR), odds ratios (ORs) were estimated using the inverse-variance weighted method. Results: After a median of 11 years of follow-up, 4290 cancers of interest were diagnosed. A 3.5 ml O 2⋅min −1⋅kg −1 total-body mass increase in fitness (equivalent to 1 metabolic equivalent of task (MET), approximately 0.5 standard deviation (SD)) was associated with lower risks of endometrial (HR = 0.81, 95% CI: 0.73–0.89), colorectal (0.94, 0.90–0.99), and breast cancer (0.96, 0.92–0.99). In MR analyses, a 0.5 SD increase in genetically predicted O 2⋅min −1⋅kg −1 fat-free mass was associated with a lower risk of breast cancer (OR = 0.92, 95% CI: 0.86–0.98). After adjusting for adiposity, both the observational and genetic associations were attenuated. Discussion: Higher fitness levels may reduce risks of endometrial, colorectal, and breast cancer, though relationships with adiposity are complex and may mediate these relationships. Increasing fitness, including via changes in body composition, may be an effective strategy for cancer prevention.</p

    Resting heart rate is a population-level biomarker of cardiorespiratory fitness: The Fenland Study.

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    IntroductionFew large studies have evaluated the relationship between resting heart rate (RHR) and cardiorespiratory fitness. Here we examine cross-sectional and longitudinal relationships between RHR and fitness, explore factors that influence these relationships, and demonstrate the utility of RHR for remote population monitoring.MethodsIn cross-sectional analyses (The UK Fenland Study: 5,722 women, 5,143 men, aged 29-65y), we measured RHR (beats per min, bpm) while seated, supine, and during sleep. Fitness was estimated as maximal oxygen consumption (ml⋅min-1⋅kg-1) from an exercise test. Associations between RHR and fitness were evaluated while adjusting for age, sex, adiposity, and physical activity. In longitudinal analyses (6,589 participant subsample), we re-assessed RHR and fitness after a median of 6 years and evaluated the association between within-person change in RHR and fitness. During the coronavirus disease-2019 pandemic, we used a smartphone application to remotely and serially measure RHR (1,914 participant subsample, August 2020 to April 2021) and examined differences in RHR dynamics by pre-pandemic fitness level.ResultsMean RHR while seated, supine, and during sleep was 67, 64, and 57 bpm. Age-adjusted associations (beta coefficients) between RHR and fitness were -0.26, -0.29, and -0.21 ml⋅kg-1⋅beat-1 in women and -0.27, -0.31, and -0.19 ml⋅kg-1⋅beat-1 in men. Adjustment for adiposity and physical activity attenuated the RHR-to-fitness relationship by 10% and 50%, respectively. Longitudinally, a 1-bpm increase in supine RHR was associated with a 0.23 ml⋅min-1⋅kg-1 decrease in fitness. During the pandemic, RHR increased in those with low pre-pandemic fitness but was stable in others.ConclusionsRHR is a valid population-level biomarker of cardiorespiratory fitness. Physical activity and adiposity attenuate the relationship between RHR and fitness

    An Introduction to Relativistic Theory as Implemented in GRASP

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    Computational atomic physics continues to play a crucial role in both increasing the understanding of fundamental physics (e.g., quantum electrodynamics and correlation) and producing atomic data for interpreting observations from large-scale research facilities ranging from fusion reactors to high-power laser systems, space-based telescopes and isotope separators. A number of different computational methods, each with their own strengths and weaknesses, is available to meet these tasks. Here, we review the relativistic multiconfiguration method as it applies to the General Relativistic Atomic Structure Package [grasp2018, C. Froese Fischer, G. Gaigalas, P. Jonsson, J. Bieron, Comput. Phys. Commun. (2018). DOI: 10.1016/j.cpc.2018.10.032]. To illustrate the capacity of the package, examples of calculations of relevance for nuclear physics and astrophysics are presented

    GRASP Manual for Users

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    grasp is a software package in Fortran 95, adapted to run in parallel under MPI, for research in atomic physics. The basic premise is that, given a wave function, any observed atomic property can be computed. Thus, the first step is always to determine a wave function. Different properties challenge the accuracy of the wave function in different ways. This software is distributed under the MIT Licence