34 research outputs found

### Adaptive Governance: The Role of Loyalty

Abstract This paper is concerned with the governance of vertical inter rm relations, i.e. relations between buyers and their suppliers on industrial, intermediate-goods markets. Networks of interacting, adaptive buyers and suppliers are viewed as complex adaptive systems Holland and Miller 1991, which leads to the use of computer simulations to explore the strategies that boundedly rational, adaptive agents learn to use to manage their relations with suppliers. Starting from a static transaction cost economic perspective, the model is extended with allowance for loyal behavior and for trust to build up, with network embeddedness of relations and with the possibility for the agents to adapt their governance to changing circumstances and to the changing relation, rendering economic organization path-dependent. The paper analyzes how relations develop in time: actors making and breaking relations, on the basis of evaluations of expected pro tability and loyalty. When allowance is made for adaptation of the relative w eights attached to each of these criteria, the result is that buyers adaptively shift the weight from pro tability t o l o y alty

### Finding optimal solutions for voting game design problems

In many circumstances where multiple agents need to make a joint decision, voting is used to aggregate the agents' preferences. Each agent's vote carries a weight, and if the sum of the weights of the agents in favor of some outcome is larger than or equal to a given quota, then this outcome is decided upon. The distribution of weights leads to a certain distribution of power. Several `power indices' have been proposed to measure such power. In the so-called inverse problem, we are given a target distribution of power, and are asked to come up with a game in the form of a quota, plus an assignment of weights to the players whose power distribution is as close as possible to the target distribution (according to some specied distance measure).\u3cbr/\u3eHere we study solution approaches for the larger class of voting game design (VGD) problems, one of which is the inverse problem. In the general VGD problem, the goal is to find a voting game (with a given number of players) that optimizes some function over these games. In the inverse problem, for example, we look for a weighted voting game that minimizes the distance between the distribution of power among the players and a given target distribution of power (according to a given distance measure). Our goal is to find algorithms that solve voting game design problems exactly, and we approach this goal by enumerating all games in the class of games of interest. \u3cbr/\u3eWe first present a doubly exponential algorithm for enumerating the set of simple games. We then improve on this algorithm for the class of weighted voting games and obtain a quadratic exponential (i.e., 2^O(n^2)) algorithm for enumerating them. We show that this improved algorithm runs in output-polynomial time, making it the fastest possible enumeration algorithm up to a polynomial factor. Finally, we propose an exact anytime-algorithm that runs in exponential time for the power index weighted voting game design problem (the `inverse problem'). We implement this algorithm to find a weighted voting game with a normalized Banzhaf power distribution closest to a target power index, and perform experiments to obtain some insights about the set of weighted voting games. We remark that our algorithm is applicable to optimizing any exponential-time computable function, the distance of the normalized Banzhaf index to a target power index is merely taken as an example

### Multiagent task allocation in social networks

This paper proposes a new variant of the task allocation problem, where the agents are connected in a social network and tasks arrive at the agents distributed over the network. We show that the complexity of this problem remains NP-complete. Moreover, it is not approximable within some factor. In contrast to this, we develop an efficient greedy algorithm for this problem. Our algorithm is completely distributed, and it assumes that agents have only local knowledge about tasks and resources. We conduct a broad set of experiments to evaluate the performance and scalability of the proposed algorithm in terms of solution quality and computation time. Three different types of networks, namely small-world, random and scale-free networks, are used to represent various social relationships among agents in realistic applications. The results demonstrate that our algorithm works well and also that it scales well to large-scale applications. In addition we consider the same problem in a setting where the agents holding the resources are self-interested. For this, we show how the optimal algorithm can be used to incentivize these agents to be truthful. However, the efficient greedy algorithm cannot be used in a truthful mechanism, therefore an alternative, cluster-based algorithm is proposed and evaluated

### Solving Weighted Voting Game Design Problems Optimally: Representations, Synthesis, and Enumeration

We study the inverse power index problem for weighted voting games: the problem of finding a weighted voting game in which the power of the players is as close as possible to a certain target distribution. Our goal is to find algorithms that solve this problem exactly. Thereto, we study various subclasses of simple games, and their associated representation methods. We survey algorithms and impossibility results for the synthesis problem, i.e., converting a representation of a simple game into another representation. We contribute to the synthesis problem by showing that it is impossible to compute in polynomial time the list of ceiling coalitions of a game from its list of roof coalitions, and vice versa. Then, we proceed by studying the problem of enumerating the set of weighted voting games. We present first a naive algorithm for this, running in doubly exponential time. Using our knowledge of the

### Multiagent task allocation in social networks

This paper proposes a new variant of the task allocation problem, where the agents are connected in a social network and tasks arrive at the agents distributed over the network. We show that the complexity of this problem remains NP-complete. Moreover, it is not approximable within some factor. In contrast to this, we develop an efficient greedy algorithm for this problem. Our algorithm is completely distributed, and it assumes that agents have only local knowledge about tasks and resources. We conduct a broad set of experiments to evaluate the performance and scalability of the proposed algorithm in terms of solution quality and computation time. Three different types of networks, namely small-world, random and scale-free networks, are used to represent various social relationships among agents in realistic applications. The results demonstrate that our algorithm works well and also that it scales well to large-scale applications. In addition we consider the same problem in a setting where the agents holding the resources are self-interested. For this, we show how the optimal algorithm can be used to incentivize these agents to be truthful. However, the efficient greedy algorithm cannot be used in a truthful mechanism, therefore an alternative, cluster-based algorithm is proposed and evaluated.Software Computer TechnologyElectrical Engineering, Mathematics and Computer Scienc

### Enumeration and exact design of weighted voting games

In many multiagent settings, situations arise in which agents must collectively make decisions while not every agent is supposed to have an equal amount of influence in the outcome of such a decision. Weighted voting games are often used to deal with these situations. The amount of influence that an agent has in a weighted voting game can be measured by means of various power indices.\u3cbr/\u3e\u3cbr/\u3eThis paper studies the problem of finding a weighted voting game in which the distribution of the influence among the agents is as close as possible to a given target value. We propose a method to exactly solve this problem. This method relies on a new efficient procedure for enumerating weighted voting games of a fixed number of agents.\u3cbr/\u3e\u3cbr/\u3eThe enumeration algorithm we propose works by exploiting the properties of a specific partial order over the class of weighted voting games. The algorithm enumerates weighted voting games of a fixed number of agents in time exponential in the number of agents, and polynomial in the number of games output. As a consequence we obtain an exact anytime algorithm for designing weighted voting games.\u3cbr/\u3

### On the complexity of efficiency and envy-freeness in fair division of indivisible goods with additive preferences

We study the problem of allocating a set of indivisible goods to a set of agents having additive preferences. We introduce two new important complexity results concerning efficiency and fairness in resource allocation problems: we prove that the problem of deciding whether a given allocation is Pareto-optimal is coNP-complete, and that the problem of deciding whether there is a Pareto-efficient and envy-free allocation is Î£ p 2 -complete

### On the complexity of efficiency and envy-freeness in fair division of indivisible goods with additive preferences

We study the problem of allocating a set of indivisible goods to a set of agents having additive preferences. We introduce two new important complexity results concerning efficiency and fairness in resource allocation problems: we prove that the problem of deciding whether a given allocation is Pareto-optimal is coNP-complete, and that the problem of deciding whether there is a Pareto-efficient and envy-free allocation is Î£ p 2 -complete