142 research outputs found

    Additive Dose Response Models: Explicit Formulation and the Loewe Additivity Consistency Condition

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    Lederer S, M. H. Dijkstra T, Heskes T. Additive Dose Response Models: Explicit Formulation and the Loewe Additivity Consistency Condition. Frontiers in Pharmacology. 2018;9: 31

    The beholder’s share in the perception of orientation of 2D shapes.

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    Previous research on orientation perception of twodimensional (2-D) shapes has demonstrated a higher performance at cardinal orientations (horizontal and vertical) than at oblique orientations. This superiority of performance around the vertical and the horizontal is called the oblique effect (see the reviews of The oblique effect results in higher accuracy and precision in the ability to match and discriminate orientations around the vertical and the horizontal than in other orientations, and many empirical results show this effect. Andrews (1967) presented a short line at the fovea and asked observers to set it parallel to a long reference line. The results showed the oblique effect both in accuracy and in precision. Bouma and Andriessen (1968) asked observers to set a point on the extension of a line segment and obtained similar results; the point setting was more accurate and precise for cardinal orientations than for oblique ones. Westheimer and Beard (1998) used an orientation discrimination task to investigate the orientation perception of lines. Observers were shown a line at a specific orientation, followed by another line at another orientation, and they were asked whether the second one was clockwise or counterclockwise relative to the orientation of the f irst line. Results of this orientation discrimination task again showed the oblique effect. There is much discussion about the origin of the oblique effect. Two types of explanations have been put forward: those based on properties of neural processing (see 1227 Copyright 2002 Psychonomic Society, Inc. This work was supported by National Science Foundation Grant SBR-9809447 and by a seed grant from The Ohio State University. We thank Manoj Subbaram and Mark A. Bullimore of the College of Optometry at OSU for testing our observers for astigmatism. We thank Jim Crowell, Jim Todd, and two anonymous reviewers for helpful suggestions. Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to B. Liu, School of Optometry, University of California, 360 Minor Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720 (e-mail: [email protected]). A considerable amount of research demonstrates that people perceive cardinal orientations (horizontal and vertical) more accurately than other orientations; this is termed the oblique effect. We investigated the interaction of this effect with the degree of elongation of the stimulus. Our stimuli were ellipses with a wide range of aspect ratios, varying from a circle (aspect ratio = 1) to a line (aspect ratio = 123.5). The task was to set a probe line in the same orientation as the long axis of the ellipse. In our first experiment, we determined that performance is degraded as the aspect ratio decreases; furthermore, the bias and response variability are linearly related to a transformation of aspect ratio (roundness). We found significant individual differences; the results show high within-subjects correlations and low between-subjects correlations. In our second experiment, we had observers judge the orientation of circles randomly mixed in with ellipses of low aspect ratio. The observers demonstrated intrinsic preferences and generated reproducible distributions of orientation settings with idiosyncratic profiles. These distributions predict the influence on the response to ellipses with an aspect ratio higher than one and can be considered as the beholder's share in the perception of shape orientation

    Lighting-from-above prior in biological motion perception

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    Fedorov LA, Dijkstra TMH, Giese MA. Lighting-from-above prior in biological motion perception. Scientific Reports. 2018;8(1): 1507.The visual system is able to recognize body motion from impoverished stimuli. This requires combining stimulus information with visual priors. We present a new visual illusion showing that one of these priors is the assumption that bodies are typically illuminated from above. A change of illumination direction from above to below flips the perceived locomotion direction of a biological motion stimulus. Control experiments show that the underlying mechanism is different from shape-from-shading and directly combines information about body motion with a lighting-from-above prior. We further show that the illusion is critically dependent on the intrinsic luminance gradients of the most mobile parts of the moving body. We present a neural model with physiologically plausible mechanisms that accounts for the illusion and shows how the illumination prior might be encoded within the visual pathway. Our experiments demonstrate, for the first time, a direct influence of illumination priors in high-level motion vision

    Molecular Machines in the Synapse: Overlapping Protein Sets Control Distinct Steps in Neurosecretion

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    Activity regulated neurotransmission shapes the computational properties of a neuron and involves the concerted action of many proteins. Classical, intuitive working models often assign specific proteins to specific steps in such complex cellular processes, whereas modern systems theories emphasize more integrated functions of proteins. To test how often synaptic proteins participate in multiple steps in neurotransmission we present a novel probabilistic method to analyze complex functional data from genetic perturbation studies on neuronal secretion. Our method uses a mixture of probabilistic principal component analyzers to cluster genetic perturbations on two distinct steps in synaptic secretion, vesicle priming and fusion, and accounts for the poor standardization between different studies. Clustering data from 121 perturbations revealed that different perturbations of a given protein are often assigned to different steps in the release process. Furthermore, vesicle priming and fusion are inversely correlated for most of those perturbations where a specific protein domain was mutated to create a gain-of-function variant. Finally, two different modes of vesicle release, spontaneous and action potential evoked release, were affected similarly by most perturbations. This data suggests that the presynaptic protein network has evolved as a highly integrated supramolecular machine, which is responsible for both spontaneous and activity induced release, with a group of core proteins using different domains to act on multiple steps in the release process

    Les droits disciplinaires des fonctions publiques : « unification », « harmonisation » ou « distanciation ». A propos de la loi du 26 avril 2016 relative à la déontologie et aux droits et obligations des fonctionnaires

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    The production of tt‾ , W+bb‾ and W+cc‾ is studied in the forward region of proton–proton collisions collected at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV by the LHCb experiment, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 1.98±0.02 fb−1 . The W bosons are reconstructed in the decays W→ℓν , where ℓ denotes muon or electron, while the b and c quarks are reconstructed as jets. All measured cross-sections are in agreement with next-to-leading-order Standard Model predictions.The production of ttt\overline{t}, W+bbW+b\overline{b} and W+ccW+c\overline{c} is studied in the forward region of proton-proton collisions collected at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV by the LHCb experiment, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 1.98 ±\pm 0.02 \mbox{fb}^{-1}. The WW bosons are reconstructed in the decays WνW\rightarrow\ell\nu, where \ell denotes muon or electron, while the bb and cc quarks are reconstructed as jets. All measured cross-sections are in agreement with next-to-leading-order Standard Model predictions

    Modelling human choices: MADeM and decision‑making

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    Research supported by FAPESP 2015/50122-0 and DFG-GRTK 1740/2. RP and AR are also part of the Research, Innovation and Dissemination Center for Neuromathematics FAPESP grant (2013/07699-0). RP is supported by a FAPESP scholarship (2013/25667-8). ACR is partially supported by a CNPq fellowship (grant 306251/2014-0)

    Measurement of the J/ψ pair production cross-section in pp collisions at s=13 \sqrt{s}=13 TeV

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    The production cross-section of J/ψ pairs is measured using a data sample of pp collisions collected by the LHCb experiment at a centre-of-mass energy of s=13 \sqrt{s}=13 TeV, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 279 ±11 pb1^{−1}. The measurement is performed for J/ψ mesons with a transverse momentum of less than 10 GeV/c in the rapidity range 2.0 < y < 4.5. The production cross-section is measured to be 15.2 ± 1.0 ± 0.9 nb. The first uncertainty is statistical, and the second is systematic. The differential cross-sections as functions of several kinematic variables of the J/ψ pair are measured and compared to theoretical predictions.The production cross-section of J/ψJ/\psi pairs is measured using a data sample of pppp collisions collected by the LHCb experiment at a centre-of-mass energy of s=13TeV\sqrt{s} = 13 \,{\mathrm{TeV}}, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 279±11pb1279 \pm 11 \,{\mathrm{pb^{-1}}}. The measurement is performed for J/ψJ/\psi mesons with a transverse momentum of less than 10GeV/c10 \,{\mathrm{GeV}}/c in the rapidity range 2.0<y<4.52.0<y<4.5. The production cross-section is measured to be 15.2±1.0±0.9nb15.2 \pm 1.0 \pm 0.9 \,{\mathrm{nb}}. The first uncertainty is statistical, and the second is systematic. The differential cross-sections as functions of several kinematic variables of the J/ψJ/\psi pair are measured and compared to theoretical predictions

    Measurement of forward WeνW\to e\nu production in pppp collisions at s=8\sqrt{s}=8\,TeV

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    A measurement of the cross-section for WeνW \to e\nu production in pppp collisions is presented using data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 22\,fb1^{-1} collected by the LHCb experiment at a centre-of-mass energy of s=8\sqrt{s}=8\,TeV. The electrons are required to have more than 2020\,GeV of transverse momentum and to lie between 2.00 and 4.25 in pseudorapidity. The inclusive WW production cross-sections, where the WW decays to eνe\nu, are measured to be \begin{align*} \begin{split} \sigma_{W^{+} \to e^{+}\nu_{e}}&=1124.4\pm 2.1\pm 21.5\pm 11.2\pm 13.0\,\mathrm{pb},\\ \sigma_{W^{-} \to e^{-}\bar{\nu}_{e}}&=\,\,\,809.0\pm 1.9\pm 18.1\pm\,\,\,7.0\pm \phantom{0}9.4\,\mathrm{pb}, \end{split} \end{align*} where the first uncertainties are statistical, the second are systematic, the third are due to the knowledge of the LHC beam energy and the fourth are due to the luminosity determination. Differential cross-sections as a function of the electron pseudorapidity are measured. The W+/WW^{+}/W^{-} cross-section ratio and production charge asymmetry are also reported. Results are compared with theoretical predictions at next-to-next-to-leading order in perturbative quantum chromodynamics. Finally, in a precise test of lepton universality, the ratio of WW boson branching fractions is determined to be \begin{align*} \begin{split} \mathcal{B}(W \to e\nu)/\mathcal{B}(W \to \mu\nu)=1.020\pm 0.002\pm 0.019, \end{split} \end{align*} where the first uncertainty is statistical and the second is systematic.A measurement of the cross-section for WeνW \to e\nu production in pppp collisions is presented using data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 22\,fb1^{-1} collected by the LHCb experiment at a centre-of-mass energy of s=8\sqrt{s}=8\,TeV. The electrons are required to have more than 2020\,GeV of transverse momentum and to lie between 2.00 and 4.25 in pseudorapidity. The inclusive WW production cross-sections, where the WW decays to eνe\nu, are measured to be \begin{equation*} \sigma_{W^{+} \to e^{+}\nu_{e}}=1124.4\pm 2.1\pm 21.5\pm 11.2\pm 13.0\,\mathrm{pb}, \end{equation*} \begin{equation*} \sigma_{W^{-} \to e^{-}\bar{\nu}_{e}}=\,\,\,809.0\pm 1.9\pm 18.1\pm\,\,\,7.0\pm \phantom{0}9.4\,\mathrm{pb}, \end{equation*} where the first uncertainties are statistical, the second are systematic, the third are due to the knowledge of the LHC beam energy and the fourth are due to the luminosity determination. Differential cross-sections as a function of the electron pseudorapidity are measured. The W+/WW^{+}/W^{-} cross-section ratio and production charge asymmetry are also reported. Results are compared with theoretical predictions at next-to-next-to-leading order in perturbative quantum chromodynamics. Finally, in a precise test of lepton universality, the ratio of WW boson branching fractions is determined to be \begin{equation*} \mathcal{B}(W \to e\nu)/\mathcal{B}(W \to \mu\nu)=1.020\pm 0.002\pm 0.019, \end{equation*} where the first uncertainty is statistical and the second is systematic.A measurement of the cross-section for W → eν production in pp collisions is presented using data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 2 fb1^{−1} collected by the LHCb experiment at a centre-of-mass energy of s=8 \sqrt{s}=8 TeV. The electrons are required to have more than 20 GeV of transverse momentum and to lie between 2.00 and 4.25 in pseudorapidity. The inclusive W production cross-sections, where the W decays to eν, are measured to be σW+e+νe=1124.4±2.1±21.5±11.2±13.0pb, {\sigma}_{W^{+}\to {e}^{+}{\nu}_e}=1124.4\pm 2.1\pm 21.5\pm 11.2\pm 13.0\kern0.5em \mathrm{p}\mathrm{b}, σWeνe=809.0±1.9±18.1±7.0±9.4pb, {\sigma}_{W^{-}\to {e}^{-}{\overline{\nu}}_e}=809.0\pm 1.9\pm 18.1\pm \kern0.5em 7.0\pm \kern0.5em 9.4\,\mathrm{p}\mathrm{b}, where the first uncertainties are statistical, the second are systematic, the third are due to the knowledge of the LHC beam energy and the fourth are due to the luminosity determination

    Additive Dose Response Models: Explicit Formulation and the Loewe Additivity Consistency Condition

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    High-throughput techniques allow for massive screening of drug combinations. To find combinations that exhibit an interaction effect, one filters for promising compound combinations by comparing to a response without interaction. A common principle for no interaction is Loewe Additivity which is based on the assumption that no compound interacts with itself and that two doses from different compounds having the same effect are equivalent. It then should not matter whether a component is replaced by the other or vice versa. We call this assumption the Loewe Additivity Consistency Condition (LACC). We derive explicit and implicit null reference models from the Loewe Additivity principle that are equivalent when the LACC holds. Of these two formulations, the implicit formulation is the known General Isobole Equation (Loewe, 1928), whereas the explicit one is the novel contribution. The LACC is violated in a significant number of cases. In this scenario the models make different predictions. We analyze two data sets of drug screening that are non-interactive (Cokol et al., 2011; Yadav et al., 2015) and show that the LACC is mostly violated and Loewe Additivity not defined. Further, we compare the measurements of the non-interactive cases of both data sets to the theoretical null reference models in terms of bias and mean squared error. We demonstrate that the explicit formulation of the null reference model leads to smaller mean squared errors than the implicit one and is much faster to compute

    Passive stability and active control in a rhythmic task

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    Rhythmically bouncing a ball with a racket is a task that affords passively stable solutions as demonstrated by stability analyses of a mathematical model of the task. Passive stability implies that no active control is needed as errors die out without requiring corrective actions. Empirical results from human performance demonstrated that actors indeed exploit this passive dynamics in steady-state performance, thereby reducing computational demands of the task. The present study investigated the response to perturbations of different magnitudes designed on the basis of the model's basin of attraction. Humans performed the task in a virtual reality set-up with a haptic interface. Relaxation times of the performance errors showed significantly faster returns than predicted from the purely passive model, indicative of active error corrections. Systematic adaptations in the racket trajectories were a monotonic function of the perturbation magnitudes, indicating that active control was applied in proportion to the perturbation. These results did not indicate any sensitivity to the boundary of stability. Yet the influence of passive dynamics was also seen: the pattern of relaxation times in the major performance variable ball height was consistent with qualitative predictions derived from the basin of attraction and racket accelerations at contact were generally negative signaling use of passive stability. These findings suggest that the fast return back to steady state was assisted by passive properties of the task. It was concluded that actors used a blend of active and passive control for all sizes of perturbations
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