43,718 research outputs found

    Performance of the local reconstruction algorithms for the CMS hadron calorimeter with Run 2 data

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    A description is presented of the algorithms used to reconstruct energy deposited in the CMS hadron calorimeter during Run 2 (2015–2018) of the LHC. During Run 2, the characteristic bunch-crossing spacing for proton-proton collisions was 25 ns, which resulted in overlapping signals from adjacent crossings. The energy corresponding to a particular bunch crossing of interest is estimated using the known pulse shapes of energy depositions in the calorimeter, which are measured as functions of both energy and time. A variety of algorithms were developed to mitigate the effects of adjacent bunch crossings on local energy reconstruction in the hadron calorimeter in Run 2, and their performance is compared

    Stereoselective <i>gem</i>-Difunctionalization of Diazo Compounds with Vinyl Sulfoxonium Ylides and Thiols via Metalloradical Catalysis

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    Multicomponent reactions that involve carbenes with nucleophiles and electrophiles have demonstrated broad applications in synthetic chemistry. However, because of the high reactivity of transient carbenes, reactions involving two carbene precursors with the nucleophile in the presence of a metal catalyst remain unexplored. Herein, a three-component stereoselective gem-difunctionalization of diazo compounds with thiols and vinyl sulfoxonium ylide is disclosed via Co(II)-based metalloradical catalysis. The key aspect of the present strategy is to exploit the intrinsic difference in the reactivity of vinyl sulfoxonium ylides and diazo compounds with thiol and metal catalysts. The present Doyle–Kirmse rearrangement of a sulfonium ylide involves a convergent assembly of two in situ-generated intermediates, such as allyl sulfide and α- metalloalkyl radical complex, to provide expeditious access to tertiary sulfide scaffolds. Combined experimental and quantum chemical calculations unveil the intricate mechanism of this three-component reaction. Furthermore, theoretical studies on noncovalent interactions of selectivity-determining transition states explain the origin of the experimentally obtained diastereoselectivity

    Extracting the speed of sound in the strongly interacting matter created in ultrarelativistic lead-lead collisions at the LHC