125 research outputs found

    Detergent-Based Decellularization for Anisotropic Cardiac-Specific Extracellular Matrix Scaffold Generation

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    Cell-derived extracellular matrix (ECM) has become increasingly popular in tissue engineering applications due to its ability to provide tailored signals for desirable cellular responses. Anisotropic cardiac-specific ECM scaffold decellularized from human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC)-derived cardiac fibroblasts (hiPSC-CFs) mimics the native cardiac microenvironment and provides essential biochemical and signaling cues to hiPSC-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs). The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy of two detergent-based decellularization methods: (1) a combination of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and sodium dodecyl sulfate (EDTA + SDS) and (2) a combination of sodium deoxycholate and deoxyribonuclease (SD + DNase), in preserving the composition and bioactive substances within the aligned ECM scaffold while maximumly removing cellular components. The decellularization effects were evaluated by characterizing the ECM morphology, quantifying key structural biomacromolecules, and measuring preserved growth factors. Results showed that both treatments met the standard of cell removal (less than 50 ng/mg ECM dry weight) and substantially preserved major ECM biomacromolecules and growth factors. The EDTA + SDS treatment was more time-efficient and has been determined to be a more efficient method for generating an anisotropic ECM scaffold from aligned hiPSC-CFs. Moreover, this cardiac-specific ECM has demonstrated effectiveness in supporting the alignment of hiPSC-CMs and their expression of mature structural and functional proteins in in vitro cultures, which is crucial for cardiac tissue engineering

    Statement in Support of: ‚ÄúVirology under the Microscope‚ÄĒa Call for Rational Discourse‚ÄĚ

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    Statement in Support of: "Virology under the Microscope-a Call for Rational Discourse"

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    Statement in Support of: ‚ÄúVirology under the Microscope‚ÄĒa Call for Rational Discourse‚ÄĚ

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    [Extract] We, members of the Australasian Virology Society, agree with and support the statement entitled ‚ÄúVirology under the Microscope‚ÄĒa Call for Rational Discourse‚ÄĚ (1). Like virologists everywhere, we have worked with scientist and clinician colleagues worldwide to develop knowledge, tests, and interventions which collectively have reduced the number of deaths due to COVID-19 and curtailed its economic impact. Such work adds to the extraordinary achievements resulting from virology research that have delivered vaccines and/or antivirals against a long list of diseases and global scourges, including AIDS, smallpox, and polio (1). We believe the question of the origin of SARS-CoV-2 should be approached with an open mind and in consideration of the best scientific evidence available. We concur with the view that the zoonosis hypothesis has the strongest supporting evidence (2‚Äď4), and this is a scenario that has been observed repeatedly in the past (5), including in Australia (6). Recent data strongly support the zoonosis hypothesis (7). We share the concern that emotive and fear-based dialogues in this area add to public confusion and can lead to ill-informed condemnation of virology research

    Effects of SGLT2 inhibitor dapagliflozin in patients with type 2 diabetes on skeletal muscle cellular metabolism

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    OBJECTIVE: SGLT2 inhibitors increase urinary glucose excretion and have beneficial effects on cardiovascular and renal outcomes; the underlying mechanism may be metabolic adaptations due to urinary glucose loss. Here, we investigated the cellular and molecular effects of 5 weeks of dapagliflozin treatment on skeletal muscle metabolism in type 2 diabetes patients. METHODS: Twenty-six type 2 diabetes mellitus patients were randomized to a 5-week double-blind, cross-over study with 6-8-week wash-out. Skeletal muscle acetylcarnitine levels, intramyocellular lipid (IMCL) content and phosphocreatine (PCr) recovery rate were measured by magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Ex vivo mitochondrial respiration was measured in skeletal muscle fibers using high resolution respirometry. Intramyocellular lipid droplet and mitochondrial network dynamics were investigated using confocal microscopy. Skeletal muscle levels of acylcarnitines, amino acids and TCA cycle intermediates were measured. Expression of genes involved in fatty acid metabolism were investigated. RESULTS: Mitochondrial function, mitochondrial network integrity and citrate synthase and carnitine acetyltransferase activities in skeletal muscle were unaltered after dapagliflozin treatment. Dapagliflozin treatment increased intramyocellular lipid content (0.060 (0.011, 0.110) %, p = 0.019). Myocellular lipid droplets increased in size (0.03 őľm2 (0.01-0.06), p < 0.05) and number (0.003 őľm-2 (-0.001-0.007), p = 0.09) upon dapagliflozin treatment. CPT1A, CPT1B and malonyl CoA-decarboxylase mRNA expression was increased by dapagliflozin. Fasting acylcarnitine species and C4-OH carnitine levels (0.4704 (0.1246, 0.8162) pmoles‚ąómg tissue-1, p < 0.001) in skeletal muscle were higher after dapagliflozin treatment, while acetylcarnitine levels were lower (-40.0774 (-64.4766, -15.6782) pmoles‚ąómg tissue-1, p < 0.001). Fasting levels of several amino acids, succinate, alpha-ketoglutarate and lactate in skeletal muscle were significantly lower after dapagliflozin treatment. CONCLUSION: Dapagliflozin treatment for 5 weeks leads to adaptive changes in skeletal muscle substrate metabolism favoring metabolism of fatty acid and ketone bodies and reduced glycolytic flux. The trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT03338855

    Effects of SGLT2 inhibitor dapagliflozin in patients with type 2 diabetes on skeletal muscle cellular metabolism

    No full text
    OBJECTIVE: SGLT2 inhibitors increase urinary glucose excretion and have beneficial effects on cardiovascular and renal outcomes; the underlying mechanism may be metabolic adaptations due to urinary glucose loss. Here, we investigated the cellular and molecular effects of 5 weeks of dapagliflozin treatment on skeletal muscle metabolism in type 2 diabetes patients. METHODS: Twenty-six type 2 diabetes mellitus patients were randomized to a 5-week double-blind, cross-over study with 6-8-week wash-out. Skeletal muscle acetylcarnitine levels, intramyocellular lipid (IMCL) content and phosphocreatine (PCr) recovery rate were measured by magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Ex¬†vivo mitochondrial respiration was measured in skeletal muscle fibers using high resolution respirometry. Intramyocellular lipid droplet and mitochondrial network dynamics were investigated using confocal microscopy. Skeletal muscle levels of acylcarnitines, amino acids and TCA cycle intermediates were measured. Expression of genes involved in fatty acid metabolism were investigated. RESULTS: Mitochondrial function, mitochondrial network integrity and citrate synthase and carnitine acetyltransferase activities in skeletal muscle were unaltered after dapagliflozin treatment. Dapagliflozin treatment increased intramyocellular lipid content (0.060 (0.011, 0.110) %, p¬†=¬†0.019). Myocellular lipid droplets increased in size (0.03¬†őľm(2) (0.01‚Äď0.06), p¬†<¬†0.05) and number (0.003¬†őľm(‚ąí2) (‚ąí0.001‚Äď0.007), p¬†=¬†0.09) upon dapagliflozin treatment. CPT1A, CPT1B and malonyl CoA-decarboxylase mRNA expression was increased by dapagliflozin. Fasting acylcarnitine species and C4‚ÄďOH carnitine levels (0.4704 (0.1246, 0.8162) pmoles‚ąómg tissue(‚ąí1), p¬†<¬†0.001) in skeletal muscle were higher after dapagliflozin treatment, while acetylcarnitine levels were lower (‚ąí40.0774 (‚ąí64.4766,¬†‚ąí15.6782) pmoles‚ąómg tissue(‚ąí1), p¬†<¬†0.001). Fasting levels of several amino acids, succinate, alpha-ketoglutarate and lactate in skeletal muscle were significantly lower after dapagliflozin treatment. CONCLUSION: Dapagliflozin treatment for 5 weeks leads to adaptive changes in skeletal muscle substrate metabolism favoring metabolism of fatty acid and ketone bodies and reduced glycolytic flux. The trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT03338855

    A three-dimensional culture system for generating cardiac spheroids composed of cardiomyocytes, endothelial cells, smooth-muscle cells, and cardiac fibroblasts derived from human induced-pluripotent stem cells

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    Cardiomyocytes (CMs), endothelial cells (ECs), smooth-muscle cells (SMCs), and cardiac fibroblasts (CFs) differentiated from human induced-pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) are the fundamental components of cell-based regenerative myocardial therapy and can be used as in-vitro models for mechanistic studies and drug testing. However, newly differentiated hiPSC-CMs tend to more closely resemble fetal CMs than the mature CMs of adult hearts, and current techniques for improving CM maturation can be both complex and labor-intensive. Thus, the production of CMs for commercial and industrial applications will require more elementary methods for promoting CM maturity. CMs tend to develop a more mature phenotype when cultured as spheroids in a three-dimensional (3D) environment, rather than as two-dimensional monolayers, and the activity of ECs, SMCs, and CFs promote both CM maturation and electrical activity. Here, we introduce a simple and reproducible 3D-culture‚Äďbased process for generating spheroids containing all four cardiac-cell types (i.e., cardiac spheroids) that is compatible with a wide range of applications and research equipment. Subsequent experiments demonstrated that the inclusion of vascular cells and CFs was associated with an increase in spheroid size, a decline in apoptosis, an improvement in sarcomere maturation and a change in CM bioenergetics

    Cardio- and Neurotoxicity of Selected Anti-COVID-19 Drugs

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    Since December 2019, the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has infected ~435 million people and caused ~6 million related deaths as of March 2022. To combat COVID-19, there have been many attempts to repurpose FDA-approved drugs or revive old drugs. However, many of the current treatment options have been known to cause adverse drug reactions. We employed a population-based drug screening platform using 13 human leukocyte antigen (HLA) homozygous human induced pluripotent cell (iPSC) lines to assess the cardiotoxicity and neurotoxicity of the first line of anti-COVID-19 drugs. We also infected iPSC-derived cells to understand the viral infection of cardiomyocytes and neurons. We found that iPSC-derived cardiomyocytes express the ACE2 receptor which correlated with a higher infection of the SARS-CoV-2 virus (r = 0.86). However, we were unable to detect ACE2 expression in neurons which correlated with a low infection rate. We then assessed the toxicity of anti-COVID-19 drugs and identified two cardiotoxic compounds (remdesivir and arbidol) and four neurotoxic compounds (arbidol, remdesivir, hydroxychloroquine, and chloroquine). These data show that this platform can quickly and easily be employed to further our understanding of cell-specific infection and identify drug toxicity of potential treatment options helping clinicians better decide on treatment options

    Intubation Practices and Adverse Peri-intubation Events in Critically Ill Patients from 29 Countries

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    Importance: Tracheal intubation is one of the most commonly performed and high-risk interventions in critically ill patients. Limited information is available on adverse peri-intubation events. Objective: To evaluate the incidence and nature of adverse peri-intubation events and to assess current practice of intubation in critically ill patients. Design, Setting, and Participants: The International Observational Study to Understand the Impact and Best Practices of Airway Management in Critically Ill Patients (INTUBE) study was an international, multicenter, prospective cohort study involving consecutive critically ill patients undergoing tracheal intubation in the intensive care units (ICUs), emergency departments, and wards, from October 1, 2018, to July 31, 2019 (August 28, 2019, was the final follow-up) in a convenience sample of 197 sites from 29 countries across 5 continents. Exposures: Tracheal intubation. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was the incidence of major adverse peri-intubation events defined as at least 1 of the following events occurring within 30 minutes from the start of the intubation procedure: cardiovascular instability (either: systolic pressure &lt;65 mm Hg at least once, &lt;90 mm Hg for &gt;30 minutes, new or increase need of vasopressors or fluid bolus &gt;15 mL/kg), severe hypoxemia (peripheral oxygen saturation &lt;80%) or cardiac arrest. The secondary outcomes included intensive care unit mortality. Results: Of 3659 patients screened, 2964 (median age, 63 years; interquartile range [IQR], 49-74 years; 62.6% men) from 197 sites across 5 continents were included. The main reason for intubation was respiratory failure in 52.3% of patients, followed by neurological impairment in 30.5%, and cardiovascular instability in 9.4%. Primary outcome data were available for all patients. Among the study patients, 45.2% experienced at least 1 major adverse peri-intubation event. The predominant event was cardiovascular instability, observed in 42.6% of all patients undergoing emergency intubation, followed by severe hypoxemia (9.3%) and cardiac arrest (3.1%). Overall ICU mortality was 32.8%. Conclusions and Relevance: In this observational study of intubation practices in critically ill patients from a convenience sample of 197 sites across 29 countries, major adverse peri-intubation events - in particular cardiovascular instability - were observed frequently

    Primary cardiac manifestation of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease revealed by patient induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytesResearch in context

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    Background: Mutations in PKD1 or PKD2 gene lead to autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). The mechanism of ADPKD progression and its link to increased cardiovascular mortality is still elusive. Methods: We differentiated ADPKD patient induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) to cardiomyocytes (CMs). The electrophysiological properties at the cellular level were analyzed by calcium imaging and whole cell patch clamping. Findings: The ADPKD patient iPSC-CMs had decreased sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium content compared with Control-CMs. Spontaneous action potential of the PKD2 mutation line-derived CMs demonstrated slower beating rate and longer action potential duration. The PKD1 mutation line-derived CMs showed a comparable dose-dependent shortening of phase II repolarization with the Control-CMs, but a significant increase in beating frequency in response to L-type calcium channel blocker. The PKD1-mutant iPSC-CMs also showed a relatively unstable baseline as a greater percentage of cells exhibited delayed afterdepolarizations (DADs). Both the ADPKD patient iPSC-CMs showed more ő≤-adrenergic agonist-elicited DADs compared with Control-CMs. Interpretation: Characterization of ADPKD patient iPSC-CMs provides new insights into the increased clinical risk of arrhythmias, and the results enable disease modeling and drug screening for cardiac manifestations of ADPKD. Fund: Ministry of Science and Technology, National Health Research Institutes, Academia Sinica Program for Technology Supporting Platform Axis Scheme, Thematic Research Program and Summit Research Program, and Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Taiwan. Keywords: Human iPS cell, Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease, Cardiomyocyte, Arrhythmi
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